Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (34):
what are two types of Prokaryotic cells ?
Do Prokaryotic cells have internal membranous organelle ?
Is Translation and Transcription separated in Prokaryotic cells
because nuclear envelope is not present
Is Bacteria Haploid or Diploid?
double stranded DNA molecules, circular, independent of chromosome
carry genes, sometimes useful bout not needed for basic living
Do bacterial cells have sterols?
except mycoplasma cells (they still their sterols)
What does the cell membrane in eukaryotes contain?
Transport protein for uptake and release of materials
ion pumps to create and maintain membrane potential
Define Quorum Sensing
method for communication between bacteria that rely on secretion of and detection of small signaling molecules
Where is the cell wall found in Prokaryotes ?
Outside of the cell membrane
What is the size of Bacterial Ribosomes?
70s formed os 30s and 50s
30s contain 16s rRNA
Where does the Glycolitic , PP and ED pathways occur?
Cytoplasmic Matrix ( between cell membrane and nucleic )
Where does the TCA cycle occur?
What is Flagella?
Rope-like propellers that extend beyond the cell wall, formed of protein(flagellin)
energy rotation comes from electromotive force
What are Spirochates?
helical Gram-negativr bacteria with endoflagella
rotation: flexing and spinning movements
Define PILI and FIMBRIAE
thinner that flagella and also extend beyond the cell wall
formed of protein PILIN used for attachment
How prokaryotic cells transport molecules?
they use transmembrane channels for large molecules to cross their membranes
Why Gram Negative bacteria have a problem when it comes to transporting molecules?
They possess outer membrane that prevents them from transportation since the protein already have folded in periplasmic space
What are the protein in Prokaryotes that are homologous to Actin and Tubulin in Eukaryotes?
Tubulin homolog ---binds and hydrolyzes GTP
important in bacterial cell division
Actin homolog ---affects cel shape Bacilus subtitles
What is the location of a cell wall in Prokaryotes?
just outside of the cell membrane
Bacterial cell wall contain Peptidoglycan
Archaeal Cell walls lack Peptidoglycan
but they still stain gram position and negative
storage form of polyphosphate
Capsules and slim layers outside of the cell wall
not need for growth
important for survival in a host organism
organized layers of microbe cells associated with surfaces
What is the function of Peptidoglycan?
Provides the structure and shape and protects the cell from osmotic forces
assists some cells in to other cells
unique to bacteria
What two carriers are needed for Synthesis of Peptidoglycan?
Effect of Penicilin use during Peptidoglycan synthesis
inhibition of the transpeptidation reaction
Effect of Bacitracin use during Peptidoglycan synthesis
blockage of dephosphorilation of bactophenol pyrophosphate
Effect of Cycloserine use during Peptidoglycan synthesis
blockage of conversion of L alanine to D alanine
Effect of Vancomycin use during Peptidoglycan synthesis
inhibits transpeptidation reaction only for the bacteria having D-alanine D-alanine terminal dipeptide
Why Gram Positive Bacteria stains purple ?
because the thick peptidoglycan retains crystal violet dye
can you use Gram staining for Acid-fast bacteria?
no because their cell wall also contains waxy lipids
it would stain both
What is Lipopolysacharide used for ?
it is used to classify bacteria