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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (40):
1

Which parts of the female reproductive system are found in the pelvis?

Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, superior part of vagina

2

Which parts of the female reproductive system are found in the perineum?

Inferior part of vagina, perineal muscles, Bartholin glands, clitoris, labia

3

Pouch of Douglas

Recto-uterine pouch

4

Clinical relevance of posterior fornix of vagina

A needle can be passed through there to drain pouch of Douglas

5

The broad ligament is formed of

A double layer of peritoneum

6

The broad ligament is located

Between the uterus and the lateral floors and walls of the pelvis

7

Which ligament is an embryological remnant?

The round ligament

8

Location of round ligament

Attaches to lateral aspect of uterus and passes through deep inguinal ring to attach to superficial perineal tissue.

9

What is contained proximally by the broad ligament?

The round ligament

10

What keeps the uterus in position and prevent prolapse?

Strong uterine ligaments, endopelvic fascia, pelvic floor muscles

11

Zygote implantation occurs...

In body of uterus

12

Ectopic pregnancy

Occurs with implantation of zygote outwith uterine body

13

Normal uterine position

Anteverted (relative to vaginal axis) and anteflexed (relative to cervical axis)

14

Normal variation of uterine position

Retroverted and retroflexed

15

What area of the cervix is sampled in a cervical smear?

The squamo-columnar junction

16

Where does fertilisation occur?

Ampulla

17

What is the communication between the genital tract and peritoneal cavity?

The fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes open out into peritoneal cavity

18

Ovary shape and size

Almond

19

Embryologically where do ovaries develop?

Posterior abdominal wall

20

What holds vaginal walls apart superiorly?

The cervix - forming a fornix

21

Parts of the fornix

2 lateral, anterior, posterior

22

Where can the ischial spines be palpated on digital examination?

Laterally at 4 and 8 oclock

23

How can you assess uterine position?

Bimanual palpation

24

Palpation of adnexae for large masses or tenderness

Place examining fingers into lateral fornix and press with other hand on ipsilateral iliac fossa

25

What forms the floor of the pelvis and the roof of the perineum?

Pelvic diaphragm

26

What forms most of the pelvic diaphragm

The levator ani muscle

27

What kind of muscle is levator ani?

Skeletal, under voluntary control, tonic contraction

28

Nerve supply to levator ani?

S3,4,5

29

Nerve supply to perineal muscles?

Pudendal nerve

30

What do the perineal muscles attach to?

Perineal body
(just deep to skin)

31

Borders of breast bed

Ribs 2 to 6, lateral sternal border, mid axillary line

32

What does the breast lie on?

Deep fascia

33

What muscles does the breast lie on?

Pectoralis major and serratus anterior

34

How does breast tissue attach to the skin?

Via suspensory ligaments

35

Where does the majority of breast lymph drain to?

Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes

36

Lymph from inner breast quadrants can drain where?

To parasternal lymph nodes (and then supraclavicular)

37

Lymph from lower inner quadrant can drain where?

To abdominal lymph nodes

38

Level 1 axillary nodes

Inferior and lateral to pectoralis minor

39

Level 2 axillary nodes

Deep to pectoralis minor

40

Level 3 axillary nodes

Superior and medial to pectoralis minor