Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (40):
Which parts of the female reproductive system are found in the pelvis?
Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, superior part of vagina
Which parts of the female reproductive system are found in the perineum?
Inferior part of vagina, perineal muscles, Bartholin glands, clitoris, labia
Pouch of Douglas
Clinical relevance of posterior fornix of vagina
A needle can be passed through there to drain pouch of Douglas
The broad ligament is formed of
A double layer of peritoneum
The broad ligament is located
Between the uterus and the lateral floors and walls of the pelvis
Which ligament is an embryological remnant?
The round ligament
Location of round ligament
Attaches to lateral aspect of uterus and passes through deep inguinal ring to attach to superficial perineal tissue.
What is contained proximally by the broad ligament?
The round ligament
What keeps the uterus in position and prevent prolapse?
Strong uterine ligaments, endopelvic fascia, pelvic floor muscles
Zygote implantation occurs...
In body of uterus
Occurs with implantation of zygote outwith uterine body
Normal uterine position
Anteverted (relative to vaginal axis) and anteflexed (relative to cervical axis)
Normal variation of uterine position
Retroverted and retroflexed
What area of the cervix is sampled in a cervical smear?
The squamo-columnar junction
Where does fertilisation occur?
What is the communication between the genital tract and peritoneal cavity?
The fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes open out into peritoneal cavity
Ovary shape and size
Embryologically where do ovaries develop?
Posterior abdominal wall
What holds vaginal walls apart superiorly?
The cervix - forming a fornix
Parts of the fornix
2 lateral, anterior, posterior
Where can the ischial spines be palpated on digital examination?
Laterally at 4 and 8 oclock
How can you assess uterine position?
Palpation of adnexae for large masses or tenderness
Place examining fingers into lateral fornix and press with other hand on ipsilateral iliac fossa
What forms the floor of the pelvis and the roof of the perineum?
What forms most of the pelvic diaphragm
The levator ani muscle
What kind of muscle is levator ani?
Skeletal, under voluntary control, tonic contraction
Nerve supply to levator ani?
Nerve supply to perineal muscles?
What do the perineal muscles attach to?
(just deep to skin)
Borders of breast bed
Ribs 2 to 6, lateral sternal border, mid axillary line
What does the breast lie on?
What muscles does the breast lie on?
Pectoralis major and serratus anterior
How does breast tissue attach to the skin?
Via suspensory ligaments
Where does the majority of breast lymph drain to?
Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes
Lymph from inner breast quadrants can drain where?
To parasternal lymph nodes (and then supraclavicular)
Lymph from lower inner quadrant can drain where?
To abdominal lymph nodes
Level 1 axillary nodes
Inferior and lateral to pectoralis minor
Level 2 axillary nodes
Deep to pectoralis minor