Lecture 2- Genetic Transmission Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2- Genetic Transmission Deck (38):
1

Contrast the characteristics of monogenic and complex disorders

- Clear inheritance vs no clear inheritance
- No environment vs environment essential
- Individually rare vs common

2

Give examples of monogenic disorders

Huntington's
Cystic Fibrosis
Haemophilia

3

Give examples of complex disorders

T2D
Schizophrenia
Crohn's disease

4

Define mendelian inheritance

- Process where individuals inherit and transmit to their offspring one out of the two alleles present in homologous chromosome

5

Define allele

Alternate forms of a gene or DNA sequence at the same chromosome location (locus)

6

Define homologous chromosome

- Homologous chromosomes are a matching (but non-identical) pair
- One inherited from each parent

7

Define 'mutation'

Any HERITABLE change in the DNA sequence

8

Define 'polymorphism'

A mutation present in >1% of a population--> complex disease

9

What are the two classes and four subclasses of mutations?

1) Point Mutation
- Missense: Change in codon to code for different amino acid
- Nonsense: Change in codon that codes for stop codon= premature end of polypeptide
2) Frameshift Mutation
- Insertion: insertion of extra base causing the code to shift out of frame
- Deletion: deletion of a base

10

What is a point mutation?

A single change in the DNA sequence

11

What does a triangle represent in a pedigree diagram?

Miscarriage

12

If you have a small arrow pointing to the square or circle, what does it represent?

The person providing the pedigree information

13

What is consanguineous mating and how is it displayed on a pedigree?

Marriage with blood relative
A double line

14

What are the five types of mendelian inheritance patterns?

1) Autosomal dominan
2) Autosomal recessive
3) X-linked dominant
4) X-linked recessive
5) Mitochondrial

15

Give an example of an autosomal dominant disease

Huntingtons's disease

16

What are the symptoms of Huntington's disease and what is its mean age of onset?

- Motor, cognitive and psychiatric dysfunction
- hyperkinesia
- Mean age of onset 35 to 44 years

17

Which gene and protein is involved in Huntington's disease?

HTT gene on Chr4
Huntingtin protein

18

What does the mutated gene cause?

- Toxic form of huntingtin that forms clumps
- cell death in basal ganglia

19

What does it mean by the 'genetic anticipation' of Huntington's?

As you go down generations:
- age of onset decreases
- severity increases

20

What causes the genetic anticipation of Huntington's disease?

- Huntington's Disease is caused by unstable CAG triplet repeats.
- As you go down generation # of repeats increases (>40 repeats for disease)

21

Give an example of an autosomal recessive disease

Cystic Fibrosis

22

Which gene and protein is involved in cystic fibrosis?

- CFTR gene on Chr7
- CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein

23

What happens when you have a mutation on the CFTR gene?

- affects Cl- ion channel function in epithelial cells
- Disruption of Na+/ H2O regulation --> thick mucus

24

What are the symptoms of CF?

- breathing problem, infection (caused by thick mucus in lungs)
- Blockages in pancreas affects digestive enzymes

25

What is the most common mutation causing CF?

Delta F508 (deletion of Phe @ aa 508)

26

Name another condition caused by a mutation in the CTFR gene and give some of its symptoms

- Congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD) --> vas deferent fail to form properly
--> azoospermia (infertility)

27

What are the characteristics of X-linked recessive disorders?

- No affected parents
- Transmitted by carrier F
- Only males affected

28

Give an example of an X-linked disease

Haemophilia

29

What causes haemophilia A?

- Mutation of F8 gene on ChrX
- Loss of functioning Coagulation Factor VIII

30

What causes haemophilia B?

- Mutation of F9 gene on ChrX
- loss of functioning coagulation factor IX

31

Give examples of genetic heterogeneity

1) Same gene, different mutation, different symptoms- cystic fibrosis and CAVD caused by mutation in the CFTR gene
2) Same disease, different gene- Haemophilia A/B
3) Same disease, different genes, different inheritance patterns- Epidermolysis Bullosa (AD/ AR)

32

Define incomplete penetrance

Symptoms not always present in an individual with a disease causing mutation

33

Define variable expressivity

Disease severity may vary between individuals with the same-disease causing mutation

34

Define phenocopy

Having same disease but with different underlying caus

35

Define Epistasis

Interaction between disease gene mutations and other modifier genes which affects phenotype

36

Look at the molecular mechanisms of dominant, recessive and co-dominant conditions

1) Dominant- presence of toxic protein- effects of mutated gene mask normal copy
2) Recessive- absence of functional protein- effects seen when normal copy is absent
3) Co-dominant- both mutated and normal genes apparent (e.g. sickle cell trait)

37

What is the therapy for dominant and co-dominant conditions?

- Neutralise the effects of the toxic protein
- 'switch off' the mutant gene

38

What is the therapy for recessive conditions?

- Restore activity of the missing protein
- replace the gene/ protein/ affected tissue