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Flashcards in Lecture 2 intro Deck (24):
1

Lamark's ideas (1744-1829)

"the inheritance of acquired characteristics"
(e.g., if a giraffe stretches its necks and changes its shape-this change gets passed down to babies)

2

Epigenetic(s)

factors silencing and activating how genes play out
(stressors, environment, and the epigenetic changes themselves can be passed down)

3

Cuvier's (1769-1832) idea? explain n define

Catastrophism- species wiped out and replaced ('God was wiping out collection of species and starting over again')

4

Lyell's (1797-1832) idea?
explain n define

Uniformitarianism- one set of principles in play when explaining natural world ('we shouldn't introduce God element)

5

Erasmus Darwin's (1731-1802) idea?

E conchis omnia ('everything from shells' everything comes from a previously existing form)

6

Malthus' work regarding resources and population?

'An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)'

-fixed number of resources that can support population, & since populations grow faster than resources there is competition between people for resources

7

Alfred Russel Wallace's contribution?

Co-discovered natural selection with Darwin, but he was a spiritualist so he didn't get a lot of credit.

8

Adaptations

Modifications that "helped" an organism survive and reproduce in a given environment (i.e., adapt to it)

9

Darwins model of heredity?

Blending theory, a discredited theory that inheritance of traits from two parents produces offspring with characteristics that are intermediate between those of the parents.


(couldn't explain two brown eyed parents giving birth to blue eyed offspring)

10

Variation

the subtle differences in the characteristics of organisms

11

Inheritance

the subtle differences in organisms passed down to their offspring

12

Two kinds of adaptations?

1) Homologies
2)Analogies

13

Homologies

adaptation that happens as a modification through descent (same structures taking on different roles for different animals)

14

Analogies

adaptations occurring as a result of Convergent evolution
(different structures adapted for the same function, e.g. diff species' wings)

15

Exaptations (Gould & Lewontin)?
2 kinds?

describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.
1)Pre-adaptations
2)Spandrels

16

Pre-adaptation

are selected for one function but used for a new function (“co-opted adaptations”)
E.g., feathers seem first evolved for thermoregulation

17

Spandrels

are now useful, but not result of past function and are thus non-adaptive in origin

E.g., brain size, language, music may all be spandrels

18

What are the two big opposing epistemologies? Define them

1) Empiricism: emphasizes the role of sensory experience in the construction of knowledge


2) Rationalism: emphasizes the role of rationality and intuition in the construction of knowledge

19

Nativism

a form of rationalism in which innate ideas are emphasized

20

What epistemology are evolutionary psychologists involved in?

-Mostly nativism, a quite specific type of rationalism- arguing against the limitations of empiricists

21

Competing Ontological Assumptions

-Reductionism
&
-Determinism

22

Reductionism

explaining things in terms of their components, starting at the highest level and working down

23

Determinism

means things are inevitable outcomes of prior causes (e.g., genes)

24

Bi-directionality

cause and effect are relative