Lecture 2: Intro to Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Intro to Anatomy and Physiology Deck (40):
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Def: Anatomy

Science which deals with the form and structure of all organisms

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Def: Physiology

The study of the integrated functions of the animal body and the functions of its constituent parts

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Bilateral symmetry

-split down the middle, half out each pair on either side.
unpaired structures: digestive system, vertebral column, heart, etc
paired structures: ie. lungs, ribs, limbs, etc.

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Median plane, aka

bilateral plane

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Sagittal plane

an off-centre plane

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transverse plane

vertical plane along z-axis

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frontal plane

horizaontal plane along x-axis

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"Palmer"

ventral/caudal/rear region of limb

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Medial view shows 2 cavities

dorsal and ventral cavities

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dorsal cavity

brain and spinal cord

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ventral cavity

most of the viscera

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Diaphragm separates ventral cavity into

thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

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Thoracic cavity is divided into

pericardial (heart) and pleural (lungs) sacs

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abdominal cavity

digestive organs, part of reproductive organs and kidneys

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pelvic cavity

terminal part of digestive system (rectum) and urogenital system

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peritonuem

membrane surrounding the abdominal and part of the pelvic viscera

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4 types of tissue

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve

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Epithelial tissue

skin; covers exposed surface and lines body cavities and glands

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connective tissue

widely distributed; supports, protects, and binds tissue together; ie. cartilage, bone, ligaments, blood, adipose tissue

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muscle

specialized for contraction and functions to accomplish movement

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Nerve

receiving and conducting electrical impulses

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Epithelial tissue is divided into

simple, stratified, and glandular

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Simple Epithelial Tissue: 4 types

simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, and pseudostratified

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simple squamous

irregular/flattened shape; lines body cavities, organs, and blood vessels

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simple cuboidal

less flat appearance, cuboidal shape, forms the walls of kidney tubules and composes the active tissue of many glands

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simple columnar

cylindrical shape, lines the trachea

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pseudostratified

bronchiole tissue

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Stratified epithelial tissue: 3 types

transitional, stratified squamous, Stratified columnar epithelium

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Trasitional stratified epithelium

urinary system and stretching tissue (bladder and ureters)

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Stratified squamous epithelium

outer lining of skin, lining esophagus, and is thickest and toughest epithelial tissue

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stratified columnar epithelium

pharynx and salivary ducts

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Glandular epithelial tissue: function

secretion and excretion

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secretion

release of substance that has been synthesized by the cell, usually affects other cells in other parts of body

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excretion

expelling of waste products not useful to the cell or body

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exocrine gland

glands that empty their products via ducts into a body cavity (mouth, gut, urinary tract) Secretions consist of aqueous mixtures

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endocrine gland

glands that empty their products *directly* into the circulatory system

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methods of secretion: 3 types

merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine

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merocrine

pass their products through the cell wall without appreciable loss of cytoplasm or damage to the cell membrane

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holocrine

entire cell is discharged, ie. sebaceous gland associrated with hair follicle

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Apocrine

apical portion of the acinar cell is discarded and the secretion released, ie. prostate and sweat glands