Lecture 2 - Reactions to injury Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Reactions to injury Deck (71):
1

With reduced blood flow, tissue becomes
ischemic, but process may be ?

reversible

2

what Generally involves single cells or cell groups?

ischemia

3

infarction

irreversible damage to tissue

4

what involves a larger area and all cell types?

infarction

5

what do you use gross inspection for?

size and color

6

microscopic examination?

reversible and irreversible

7

color: white

scar, tissue, pigment, necrosis

8

color: black

gangrene

9

size: large

swelling, hypertrophy, bleding, tumor

10

size: small

scar, atrophy

11

reversible injury

a,h,h,m,s,l,inc

12

hypertrophy

excess, invrease volume size

13

hyperplasia

enlargement of an organ or tissue - reproduction rate increase

14

metaplasia

change in form

15

inclusions

elementary body or aggregates

16

atrophy due to?

dec. protein synthesis
reduced function
physio or pathologic

17

causes of hypertrophy

increased exercise or hypertension with LV hypertrophy

18

mechanism of hypertrophy

increased contractile proteins

19

what is hyperplasia

excess # of cells organ or tissue

20

causes of metaplasia (superman) meta human

pathologic process due treaction from an irratant

21

ex. of metaplasia

esphagus with gland formation

22

reason for swelling

permeable cell membrane

23

hemosiderin

found in macro and following hemorrhage

24

inclusion

accumulations of virus and protein

25

causes of protein inclusion

misfolding or accumulation of an abnormal protein

26

what occurs in alcholism

mallory bodies - composed of ctyokeratin filaments

27

mallory bodies

ubiquination & autophagia

28

what tries to refold proteins

chaperone hSP

29

what degreades misfolded proteins?

ubiquitin-proteosome system

30

autophagy

cells eats its own contents

31

what causes autophagy

cell dmg, apop, protein aggre, starvaion, cancer, infection

32

autophagy related genes

atg5-atg12 ag16 + cascasde of other genes

33

autophagic vacuole

membrane around -->fuses with lysosome to form autophagic vacuole

34

fixation

form of cell death that looks diff norm. micro

35

autolysis

cells look poorly preserved under micro.
broken down by own enzymes

36

necrosis

pathologic

37

apoptosis

physio and path

38

autophagy

physio and patho

39

types of necrosis

coagulation
liquification
caseous
enzymatic
infarction
ulceration

40

coagulation necrosis

proteins denatured
* cytoplasmic eosiphilic
cell becomes tombstone
nucleus is dark

41

caseous necrosis

pulmonary tuberoculosis
and looks like cheese

42

enzymatic (fat) necrosis

occurs in pancrease
enz destroys tissue
color: white-yellow grossly

43

ulcer is a type of?

acute necrosis

44

myocardial infarct

acute anteiror wall MI

45

apoptotic cell

peripheral condensation of chromatin
eosinophlic cytoplasm

46

apoptotic bodies

nuclear fragmentation --> not seen in necrosis

47

histo apoptosis

peripherial condensation of chromatin unlike necrosis

48

necrosis vs apop
stimuli:

numerous
physio + patho

49

necrosis vs apo
histo

coagulation
apoptotic bodies

50

necro vs apop
dna breakdown

random
inter nucleosomal

51

necro vs apop
reaction

polys
phagocytosis

52

necrosis vs apop
mechanism

passive
active

53

cytoplasm changes its characteristics

metaplasia

54

numerous causes of cellular swelling

cell membrane more permeable
or
fluid extravasation from blood stream into the tissue

55

what is an early response to injury?

cell swelling

56

yellow liver due to

fatty change

57

color of inclusion 'hyaline' material

glassy, opazue, amorphous and homegeneous

58

what are mallory bodies composed of?

cytokeratin filaments

59

what happens if uniquitination system fails?

misfolded protein accumulates

60

necroptosis

patholgoic

61

cell necrosis

proteins denatures --> turn red (Red is dead)

62

shape of cell necrosis

becomes tombstone

63

nucleus of cell necrosis

dark dna (pyknosis) then fragments then disappears

64

with reduced blood flow tissue becomes

ischemic but reversible

65

ischemia involves single..

cells or cell groups but not an entire orgran

66

irreversible damage to tissue

infarction

67

ifarction involves large..

area and all cells there

68

3 things to cause apoptosis

1) tumor necrosis factor -->FAS ligand
2) Survival Facrtors (endonuetrium)
3) Free radicals, ischemia, chemo

69

caspases (3)

endonuclease to fracture dna -->fragmentation

70

caspase independent

necroptosis

71

what does necroptosis activate

two kinases
* RIp1 and RIP3