Flashcards in Lecture 2 Workplace Selection Deck (39):
matching the person to the job or organisation, and then evaluating the effectiveness of that match
What info do you need for selection?
Need information on:
-What the job requires (job analysis)
-What the person has to offer (KSAOs) Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other things (values etc)
-How well the person performs in that type of work
Why is the selection process useful? Utility
1. Company performance depends on employees. Companites that use validated selection processes do better.
2. It is costly to recruit and hire employees. (search fees, interviewing, Training for several months, moving someone from overseas etc)
3. There are legal implications of
incompetent selection (discrimination, can get sued)
4. Can depend on selection ratio* and base
rate of success*
What is the selection ratio?
Number of job vacancies DIVIDED BY Number of applicants
• If selection ratio ≥ 1 utility decreases (if you have 2 applicants for 10 vacencies, selection ratio is 5, so they will all get hired)
• If selection ratio < 1 utility increases (if you have 2 vacencies and 10 applicatns, 10/2 is .2, less than one. You use the process to screen IN.
Base Rate of Success
Base rate: The proportion of hires considered successful before implementation of selection system
• The higher the base rate the less likely a new system will be beneficial
i.e. a job when you don't require special skills etc, everyone would be successful.
If you have a job like a brain surgeon, it is much more important to have a validated selection process
Steps in the Selection Process
I. Employee Recruitment
II. Employee Screening
III. Employee Selection and Placement
IV. Validity Check
What is I) Employee recruitment?
Process by which companies attract qualified applicants (job advertismenets, on campus recruitment, web based career sites, social media etc)
Why are referrals and web sites beneficial for employee recruitment?
• Employee REFERRALS and applicant-initiated contacts yield higher quality workers with lower rate of turnover than newspaper ads or employment agency placement (e.g., Saks, 1994)
• Internet sites have lots of job seekers and employers, and require sifting through many potential applicants
Disadvantages of employee recruitment
Employees try to sell themselves to companies, but companies also try to sell themselves to employees
• Characteristics of recruitment program and recruiters can influence applicants’ decisions to accept or reject job offers
• Some companies “oversell” themselves. Then employees realize they are stuck in a job with no opportunity for advancement
What is Realistic job previews (RJP)?
An accurate presentation of the prospective job and organisation made to applicants (in form of an oral presentation, pamphlet, on-site visit, manual etc)
Advantages and one disadvantage of RJPs?
RJPs increase job commitment and satisfaction; decrease turnover (e.g., Horn et al., 1998)
• RJPs allow applicants to self-select, lower unrealistically high job expectations, and may provide applicants with information that will later be useful on the job.
• But, applicants are more likely to turn down a job offer when RJP presented
What is 2) Employee screening?
The process of reviewing information about job applicants to select workers
1. Applications and resumes
3. Employment testing
4. Assessment Centres
Purpose of Applications and Resumes
Purpose: to collect biographical information, which is among the best predictors of future job performance
• First impressions count! (Macan & Dipboye, 1994)
• Questions that are not job-related should not
be on application forms
• It can be difficult to evaluate and interpret
this information to determine most qualified applicants (can use weighted appications, so 5 points to the uni degree, 2 points for some experience, compare applicants with different things)
Advantages and disadvantages of references
May have limited importance because:
-It is unlikely that applicants will give details of
someone who would say something bad
All references can be so positive that employers
can’t distinguish between applicants
-Litigation against employers who provide bad
references has caused some employers to refuse to write them. They get defamation for writing a bad reference, so better not to write references.
• Still widely used in postgrad schools and
-Often include rating forms
-Some get applicants to sign a waiver for rights to see letter
Why do Employment Testing?
Most employers use standardised tests because it can be costly and time-consuming to create valid and reliable tests
Measures of Employment testing? (8)
b. Cognitive ability (Intelligence tests)
c. Mechanical ability
d. Motor and sensory ability e. Job skills and knowledge f. Personality
h. Other tests
Advantages and disadvantages of Biodata?
Background information and personal characteristics
• There are no standardised biodata instruments, and they can be difficult to develop
• Can be effective for screening and placement (e.g., Dean, 2004)
Advantages and disadvantages cognitive ability tests?
Tests of general intellectual ability or tests of specific cognitive skills
• Provides an indication of the individual’s learning potential and capacity to manage complexity in problem solving, decision making etc.
• Cognitive ability is predictive of job success, but validity moderated by complexity of job (predicts at .51, from complex jobs validity is higher, .58, less complex jobs it is a lower predictor)
• These tests may have adverse impact on particular groups
Mechanical Ability Tests Advantages
Standaridsed tests have been developed to measure abilities in identifying, recognising, and applying mechanical principles
• Effective screening for positions involving operating and repairing machinery, construction, engineering
What are examples of Motor and Sensory Ability Tests
Motor tests: E.g., speed tests that require manipulation of small parts to measure fine motor dexterity
• Sensory tests: E.g., tests of hearing, visual acuity (eye chart tests for bus drivers), and perceptual discrimination
Examples of Job Skills and Knowledge Tests, positives and negatives.
Work samples tests: Measure applicants’ abilities to perform brief examples of important job tasks
-Pos: clearly job-related and can serve as
realistic job preview
- HIgh validity. Can be one of the best predictors of job
performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998)
-Neg: Can be expensive and time-consuming
• Job knowledge tests: Measure specific
types of knowledge required to perform a job
Why use Personality tests?
Before 1990s considered invalid predictors by researchers although used by practitioners
• Now: Work-related personality characteristics can be reasonably good predictors of job performance, especially when the they are derived from job analysis
• Some personality measures (e.g., MMPI) are used to screen out applicants who posses psychopathologies
What is the Predictive Validity of the Big Five
High predictive validity. (Barrick, Mount & Strauss, 1993; Barrick, Mount & Judge, 2001)
Different traits predict success in different things
Conscientiousness -> (Performance across jobs, Teamwork, Training)
Emotional stability (Neuroticism) -> (Performance across jobs, Teamwork)
Extroversion -> (Performance in specific roles e.g. sales, mgt Teamwork, Training)
Agreeableness -> (Teamwork, Customer service
Openness to experience) -> (Training only)
What are Integrity Tests
Tests designed to assess an applicant’s HONESTY and character through questions concerning drug use, shoplifting, petty theft, etc.
• Although overt integrity tests are easy to ‘fake good’, covert tests are not, and the results are somewhat predictive of job performance (Alliger et al, 1996)
• Integrity tests are valid predictors of:
• Dishonesty (lie scales, way too good to be true, taking longer to respond may be untrue answers, remove those who have very high scores in social desirability
What other tests might be used?
• Counterproductive behaviours (drug testings, graphology -> handwriting)
When are Assessment Centres used? pros and cons?
Structured setting in which applicants take part in multiple activities, monitored by a group of evaluators.
• Typically used in large organisations for managerial positions
• Can be good predictors of managerial success, but can be very costly
What are two types of interviews?
One of the most common selection procedures
• Validity varies according to how the
interview is conducted:
a. Traditional unstructured interviews
b. Structured interviews
What are the advantages of Traditional Employment Interviews?
-In unstructured interviews you simply ask questions that come to mind.
• No formalized “scoring” for the quality of each answer.
• May actually diminish the tendency to make simple stereotype judgments
can ask follow up questions about what they said
What are the disadvantages of Traditional Employment Interviews?
-Physically attractive people hired more than those less physically attractive, although not by the most experienced managers
• Unstructured interviews often give rise to poor selection decisions and sometimes lack predictive validity.
• There can be low level of agreement between interviewers
What are Factors That Can Undermine an Interview’s Usefulness (14)
• Snap Judgments
• Negative emphasis (don't pay attention to pos info)
• Self-fulfilling prophecies
• Misunderstanding the job
• Interview skills (e.g., communication) may
not relate to job
• Pressure to hire
-Candidate-order (contrast) error
• Influence of nonverbal behavior
• Telegraphing (put the correct answer into the applicants notes, asking very leading questions, nodding at right answers. Give them the questions)
• Too much/too little talking (interviewers focused on selection talk too little, focus on recruiting (selling the organisation) employers talk too much)
• Similar-to-me effect
• Halo effect (because they are good at one thing they assume they are good at everything)
• Other personal prejudices/biases
What are characteristics of Structured Interviews?
All applicants are evaluated in the same manner (same information is obtained in the same situation from all applicants, who are then compared on a common, relevant set of dimensions)
• Structured interviews are better than traditional interviews
What are the types of questions in structured interviews? (4)
-Situational questions: Asks interviewees how they would deal with specific job-related, hypothetical situations
• Behavioural questions: Asks interviewees to draw on past job incidents and behaviours to deal with hypothetical future work situations
• Job knowledge questions: Assesses interviewee knowledge about the job, assesses potential
• Background questions: Supplements information from resume and application form
Employee Screening Effectiveness What are the best kinds of tests for job performance, vs worst tests?
Comparative Validities for Overall Job Performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998)
- Work sample tests .54
-Cognitive ability tests .51
- Structured interviews .51
- Job knowledge tests .48
- Assessment centres .37
- Biodata .35
- Conscientiousness .31
- References .26
- Unstructured interviews .14
- Graphology .02
- Age -.01
III. Employee Selection & Placement
What is employee selection?
The actual process of choosing people for employment from a pool of applicants
• Once employers have gathered information about job applicants, they can combine this information in various ways to make selection decisions
• Usually these decisions are made subjectively, but such decisions are error prone
Decisions can be made more objectively using what models? (3)
Decisions can be made more objectively using:
-Multiple regression: A statistical decision-making model (great scores on one thing compensate for very poor scores on other things, not good.)
-Multiple cut-off model: Uses a minimum cutoff score for each of the various predictors of job performance (grip strength test for police, can't be sued for discrimination)
-Multiple hurdle model: Requires an
acceptance or rejection decision to be made at each of several stages in the screening process. Applicants who do not pass one of the hurdles are no longer considered for the job
Can go through a combo of multiple hurdle and multiple cut-off.
An unqualified applicant doesn't have to go through all the expensive stages.
What is Employee placement?
The process of assigning workers to appropriate jobs
• Only takes place when there are two or more positions that a new worker could fill
IV Validity Check, why is this important?
Test the selection procedures to determine if they succeeded in identifying the best workers for the job.
What is Adverse Impact?
Adverse Impact occurs when members of one sub-group are selected disproportionately more or less often than members of another sub-group