Lecture 20-Circulatory and Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20-Circulatory and Respiratory System Deck (72):
1

Animals depend on oxygen because it provides:

Chemical fuel for cellular respiration

2

All cells need __________.

Fuel

3

Animals engage in constant gas exchange, or __________, with the environment.

Respiration

4

Gas exchange is different from the __________ __________ of cellular respiration.

Energy transformation

5

Gas exchange must take place across moist respiratory surfaces by __________.

Diffusion

6

Gas exchange must take place across __________ respiratory surfaces by diffusion.

Moist

7

All respiratory surfaces have __________ surface areas.

Large

8

Mammals have:

Lungs

9

Insects have a:

Tracheal system

10

Fish have:

Gills

11

Mammals ventilate by negative pressure breathing powered by the __________.

Diaphragm

12

Mammals ventilate by __________ __________ __________ powered by the diaphragm.

Negative pressure breathing

13

Movement of the respiratory medium (O2 and CO2) over the respiratory surface (lungs).

Ventilation

14

Air travels through:

Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli

15

__________ are where gas exchange occurs in mammals.

Alveoli

16

The circulatory system is a __________ system.

Transport

17

The circulatory delivers:

O2, CO2, nutrients, and water

18

The circulatory system consists of these three components:

Circulatory fluid (blood), interconnecting tubes (blood vessels), and a muscular pump (heart)

19

__________ consists of cells suspended in plasma.

Blood

20

Water, ions, plasma proteins, substances transported by blood (nutrients, respiratory gases, hormones).

Plasma

21

White blood cells are also called:

Leukocytes

22

Leukocytes are for:

Defense and immunity

23

Platelets are for:

Blood clotting

24

Red blood cells are also called:

Erythrocytes

25

Erythrocytes are for the transport of __________ via __________.

Oxygen, hemoglobin

26

These carry blood between the heart and organs.

Blood vessels

27

__________ carry blood AWAY from the heart TO the organs.

Arteries

28

__________ carry blood FROM the organs BACK TO the heart.

Veins

29

The vessels are defined by __________ of blood flow.

Direction

30

The vessels are NOT defined by their __________ __________.

Oxygen content

31

The __________ is a muscular pump powering blood circulation.

Heart

32

The heart is made up mostly of __________ muscle.

Cardiac

33

The human heart has how many chambers?

4

34

What are the four chambers of the heart?

Right and left atrium, right and left ventricles

35

The heart contracts and relaxes in a __________ cycle.

Rhythmic

36

The human heart rate is about _____ beats per minutes.

72

37

One complete sequence of pumping and filling.

Cardiac cycle

38

Contraction phase.

Systole

39

Relaxation phase.

Diastole

40

Heart rhythm is maintained by the __________.

Pacemaker

41

Sets the rate and timing of cardiac muscle cell contraction.

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

42

Relay point.

Atrioventricular node (AV node)

43

Heart rhythm is affected by things such as:

Nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise

44

__________ __________ __________ and __________ __________ vary throughout the circulatory system.

Blood flow velocity, blood pressure

45

__________: fastest in arteries, slowest is capillaries, medium in veins.

Velocity

46

Velocity is fastest in __________.

Arteries

47

Velocity is slowest in __________.

Capillaries

48

Velocity is medium in __________.

Veins

49

__________ __________: highest in arteries, lowest in veins, medium in capillaries.

Blood pressure

50

Blood pressure is highest in __________.

Arteries

51

Blood pressure is lowest in __________.

Veins

52

Blood pressure is medium in __________.

Capillaries

53

__________ consists of cells suspended in plasma.

Blood

54

__________ consists of water, ions, plasma proteins, substances transported by blood.

Plasma

55

White blood cells are also known as:

Leukocytes

56

Red blood cells are also known as:

Erythrocytes

57

Leukocytes are for __________ and __________.

Defense and immunity

58

Blood flow in capillaries is controlled by:

Precapillary sphincters

59

At any given time, only about __________% of the capillaries have blood flowing through them.

5-10%

60

Only __________ __________ are filled to capacity.

Vital capacity

61

Blood flow to the veins is powered by:

Skeletal pumping

62

These keep blood moving toward the heart.

One-way valves

63

What happens when one-way valves malfunction?

Varicose veins

64

Arthropods and most mollusks have __________ circulatory systems.

Open

65

In open circulatory systems, __________ bathes body cells.

Hemolymph

66

Annelids, cephalopods, and all vertebrates have __________ circulatory systems.

Closed

67

In closed circulatory systems, blood is confined to __________ and a __________ pumps blood.

Vessels, heart

68

Fish have __________ circulation.

Single

69

In __________ __________, blood passes through two capillary beds before returning to the heart.

Single circulation

70

Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals have __________ circulation.

Double

71

In __________ __________ there are two separate circuits.

Double circulation

72

The two separate circuits in double circulation are:

Pulmonary and systemic