Lecture 20: Radiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20: Radiology Deck (24):
1

How does X-Ray work

Rays pass through tissue, and detect differences in density to produce an image.

2

How does fluoroscopy work

Continuous x-rays pass through a moving image, often with a contrast agent

3

How does CT work

X-rays pass through body from all directions, to produce slices through the body, usually transverse

4

How does MRI work

uses body's intrinsic magnetic properties to create images, sends out an energy pulse, magnetic response is the image. Bonus, has no radiation!

5

How does ultrasound work?

Uses high frequency sound waves transmitted by a hand-held transducer, reflections are monitored and create image that is portable and in real-time

6

How do components of the body differ in density

Bone/Metal > soft tissue > fat > air. Important for X-ray and CT

7

Parts of the thoracic cavity

Pleural cavity and mediastinum

8

Parts of pleural cavity

Pleura and lungs, pleura made of viseral pleura and parietal pleura

9

Areas where there are no visceral pleura between parietal pleura

These are places for fluid to accumulate here first the largest is the costadiaphragmatic recess, CP angle

10

fluid in pleural cavity

Pleural effusion, seen as white space where there should be black space

11

air in pleural cavity

pneumothorax, seen as lung outline is elevated from where pleural cavity should be

12

pneumoperitoneum

air inside the peritoneal cavity, can cause the peritoneum to bulge up on an x-ray

13

Left lung anatomy

One fissure: oblique/major. 2 lobes, upper and lower. Mainstem Bronchi branches inside lung

14

Right Lung anatomy

Two fissures. Oblique/Major fissure separates uper from lower superiorly, upper from middle inferiorly. Minor/horizontal fissure separates middle from lower.

15

Dual blood supply of lungs

Bronchial arteries (ox. Blood) pulmonary arteries (De-ox. Blood)

16

pneumonia on x-ray

can be seen as white cloudyness in lungs,

17

Contents of mediastinum

Thymus, heart in pericardial sac, major vessels, trachea, esophagus, nerves and lymphatics

18

classification of mediastinum

inferior vs. superior. Inferior can be seperated into anterior, middle and posterior. Middle inferior mediatinum contains heart, pericardium and the origin of the great vessels

19

positioning of heart apex

points down, forward and to the left

20

two pumps of the heart

Right pump SVC and IVC --> right atria --> right ventricle --> pulmonary arteries --> lungs. Left pump pulmonary veins --> left atria --> left ventricle --> aortic arch --> body

21

right heart border

SVC, IVC, right atria, not right ventricle (which sits at base)

22

left heart border

aortic arch, pulmonary trunk, LA, LV

23

Contents of superior mediastinum

R and L brachiocephalic veins, thoracic aorta with major branches, superior vena cava, esophagus, trachea, thymus, phrenic and vagus nerves, left recurrent larngeal nerve (passes under arch)

24

parts of pericardium

serous and fibrous layers, serous layer has visceral and parietal parts