Lecture 21 - perineum: anal triangle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 21 - perineum: anal triangle Deck (36):
1

What ia the perineum/

region below the pelvic floor - between the thighs

2

it has the same diamond shaped boundaries as the ...

pelvic outlet:
differently organised

horizontal between the ishail tuberosities -

3

what are the two triangles created?

urogenital and anal

4

what are the boundaries of the perineum?

symphysis pubic on top

ishail tuberosities on each side

coccyx at the bottom

5

The urogenital triangle is further subdivided into a..

What divides them?

superificial and deep (close to pelvic floor)

divided by the peroneal membrane

6

peroneal membrane has a free _____ edge

posterior

7

the superifical part of the peroneal membrane is the anchor point for...

the external genitalia

8

the deep surface of the peroneal membrane is a muscular diaphragm made up of the ______

sphincters of the tubular structures

9

The free posterior edge of the peroneal membrane is reinforced by muscles called

superifical transverse perineal msucle

deep transverse erineal muscles

(mirrored)

10

What is the name of the fat filled space between the ishium and anal canal?

ishiorectal fossa

11

The side wall of the perineum is the inferior half of ...

obturator internus (below the linear attachment of levator ani)

12

Where does the NV bundle of the perineum run?

the pudendal canal - in the fascia overlying obturator internus

13

There is angulation of rectum/anal canal is....

hat maintains it?

downwards and backwards

created by puborectalis

14

The upper 2/3 of the anal canal is lined by ..

and supplied by...

mucosa -

Sup. rectal artery
veins draining to the portal system

15

The upper 2/3 of the anal canal is innervated by -

autonomic nerves

16

what delineates the upper 2/3 from lower part of anal canal

pectinate line -

17

the lower 1/3 of the anal canal is arterial supplied by

inferior rectal artery - branch of iliac system
drains to systemic veins

18

true or false

there is a porto-systemic anastomosis at the anal canal

true

the venous plexus can become engorged

19

the lower 1/3 of the anal canal is innervated by

somatic nerves

inf. rectal branch of pudendal nerve

20

describe the internal anal sphinter

thickening in smooth muscle wall - autonomic control

21

describe the external anal sphinter

3 components

deep
superficial
subcutaneous

22

The deep component of the external anal sphincter fuses with..

puborectalis - at the ano-rectal junction

23

The superficial component of the external anal sphincter is fixed anteriorly and psoteriorly to what?

posteriorly: tip of the coccyx

anteriorly: a fibrous thickening of the free posterior border of the perineal membrane called the perineal body - also called a central tendon

24

what mscles are connected to the central tendon or perineal body?

sup and deep transverse perineal muscle

superfiical component of the ext. anal sphincter

levator ani

all of the perineal sphincter assoc. with the vagina

25

the female urethra is very short typcially how long?

4cm

26

what does the female urethra pass?

pelvic floor

deep perineal pouch - part deep to the membrane

perineal membrane

vestibule

exterior

27

the external urethral shpincter in females is __ to the perineal membrane

deep

28

The pair of paraurethral (mucus) glands are either side of the urethra are situated _____ to the perineal membrane

superficial

29

what are the adv/disadv. of the short urethra in females?

advantages

catherising is wayyy easier


disadvantages

any sup pathogens are close to the bladder= urinary tract infection

30

What are the four parts of the male urethra's journey?

1. preprostatic - very short, at the bladder neck

2. prostatic part - traverses the prostate (3cm)

3. membranous - traverses the perineal membrane, perineal pouch

4. spongy/penile part

31

The bulbourethral gland's ducts open into the ___ part of the urethra

penile

32

describe the urethral sphincters in male

internal - assoc with bladder neck

external - assoc. with deep pouch of perineal membrane (with all the other sphincters) - same with female

33

Descibe the root of the penis

what are the anchor points?

midline structure - corpus spongiosum (attached to the sup. surface of the perineal membrane)

pair of erectile cylinders - corpora cavernosa - achored to the ishiopubic rami


34

what are the respective muscles the proximally ocver the roots of the penis?

ishiocavernosis and bulbo spongiosis

35

The female has two ____ ______ either side of the perineal membrane

corpro caverosa

36

The midline erectile mass of the female is ___

paired