Flashcards in Lecture 21 - perineum: anal triangle Deck (36):
What ia the perineum/
region below the pelvic floor - between the thighs
it has the same diamond shaped boundaries as the ...
horizontal between the ishail tuberosities -
what are the two triangles created?
urogenital and anal
what are the boundaries of the perineum?
symphysis pubic on top
ishail tuberosities on each side
coccyx at the bottom
The urogenital triangle is further subdivided into a..
What divides them?
superificial and deep (close to pelvic floor)
divided by the peroneal membrane
peroneal membrane has a free _____ edge
the superifical part of the peroneal membrane is the anchor point for...
the external genitalia
the deep surface of the peroneal membrane is a muscular diaphragm made up of the ______
sphincters of the tubular structures
The free posterior edge of the peroneal membrane is reinforced by muscles called
superifical transverse perineal msucle
deep transverse erineal muscles
What is the name of the fat filled space between the ishium and anal canal?
The side wall of the perineum is the inferior half of ...
obturator internus (below the linear attachment of levator ani)
Where does the NV bundle of the perineum run?
the pudendal canal - in the fascia overlying obturator internus
There is angulation of rectum/anal canal is....
hat maintains it?
downwards and backwards
created by puborectalis
The upper 2/3 of the anal canal is lined by ..
and supplied by...
Sup. rectal artery
veins draining to the portal system
The upper 2/3 of the anal canal is innervated by -
what delineates the upper 2/3 from lower part of anal canal
pectinate line -
the lower 1/3 of the anal canal is arterial supplied by
inferior rectal artery - branch of iliac system
drains to systemic veins
true or false
there is a porto-systemic anastomosis at the anal canal
the venous plexus can become engorged
the lower 1/3 of the anal canal is innervated by
inf. rectal branch of pudendal nerve
describe the internal anal sphinter
thickening in smooth muscle wall - autonomic control
describe the external anal sphinter
The deep component of the external anal sphincter fuses with..
puborectalis - at the ano-rectal junction
The superficial component of the external anal sphincter is fixed anteriorly and psoteriorly to what?
posteriorly: tip of the coccyx
anteriorly: a fibrous thickening of the free posterior border of the perineal membrane called the perineal body - also called a central tendon
what mscles are connected to the central tendon or perineal body?
sup and deep transverse perineal muscle
superfiical component of the ext. anal sphincter
all of the perineal sphincter assoc. with the vagina
the female urethra is very short typcially how long?
what does the female urethra pass?
deep perineal pouch - part deep to the membrane
the external urethral shpincter in females is __ to the perineal membrane
The pair of paraurethral (mucus) glands are either side of the urethra are situated _____ to the perineal membrane
what are the adv/disadv. of the short urethra in females?
catherising is wayyy easier
any sup pathogens are close to the bladder= urinary tract infection
What are the four parts of the male urethra's journey?
1. preprostatic - very short, at the bladder neck
2. prostatic part - traverses the prostate (3cm)
3. membranous - traverses the perineal membrane, perineal pouch
4. spongy/penile part
The bulbourethral gland's ducts open into the ___ part of the urethra
describe the urethral sphincters in male
internal - assoc with bladder neck
external - assoc. with deep pouch of perineal membrane (with all the other sphincters) - same with female
Descibe the root of the penis
what are the anchor points?
midline structure - corpus spongiosum (attached to the sup. surface of the perineal membrane)
pair of erectile cylinders - corpora cavernosa - achored to the ishiopubic rami
what are the respective muscles the proximally ocver the roots of the penis?
ishiocavernosis and bulbo spongiosis
The female has two ____ ______ either side of the perineal membrane