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Flashcards in Lecture 22 Deck (47):
1

What is the study of regulatory processes that are responsible for the control of cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis (gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy). Also, the study of cell fate, cell determination, and cell differentiation.

Developmental genetics

2

A (stem) cell that has the ability to divide and produce ALL of the differentiated cells in an organism

Totipotent cell

3

The process of a cell becoming committed to a particular cell fate.

Differentiation

4

A cell committed to one particular cell fate

Unipotent cell

5

T/F: Differentiation is irreversible.

False, differentiation is reversible with use of stem cells

6

What can bring about major developmental changes despite no changes in gene sequences? For examples, Freshwater Sticklebacks whose pelvic spines are reduced or missing despite having same gene sequences as Marine sticklebacks, whose pelvic spines are present.

A. Alterations of regulatory sequences
B. Change in enhancer sequence
C. Change in inhibitor sequence
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

7

Stem cells that can be any cells except extra embryonic cells (Placenta)?

Pluripotent

8

Cells of which structure are the only cells that are totipoent, meaning they can become all tissues including the extraembryonic cells (placenta)?

A. Blastula
B. Morula
C. Inner cell mass
D. Extra embryonic mesoderm
E. A and B

B. Morula

9

Which cells originate as inner cell mass?

A. Pluripotent
B. Unipotent
C. Totipotent
D. Multi potent

A. Pluripotent

10

What type of cells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells?

Give an example

Multi potent cells

Hematopoietic stem cells

11

Cells with the ability to give rise to only the cells of its lineage

A. Multipotent
B. Unipotent
C. Oligopotent
D. Pluripotent

C. Oligopotent

12

Hematopoietic stem cells change from Multipotent to oligopotent when they differentiate into:

A. Myeloblasts
B. Myeloid or lymphoid progenitor cells
C. Bone marrow stem cells
D. Pluripotent stem cells

B. Myeloid or lymphoid progenitor cells

13

What proves the fact that original genetic material is not lost during development?

A. Cloning is possible
B. Plants can be cloned from isolated single cells
C. Nutrient medium needed for cloning
D. All of the above

B. Plants can be cloned from isolated single cells

14

What is necessary for cloning an animal?

A. Reestablishing totipotencey
B. Viable cell
C. Viable nucleus
D. All of the above
E. B and C

D. All of the above

15

Process of cloning an animal

Donor nucleus
Donor egg - remove nucleus
Fuse egg and nucleus
Fused cell begins to divide into embryo
Implant embryo into uterus of foster mother

16

How soon does fruit fly egg begin segmentation?

A. Few minutes
B. Few hours
C. Few days
D. Few months

B. Few hours

17

How soon does fully functioning adult fruit fly develop?

A. 3 days
B. 6 days
C. 9 days
D. 12 days

C. 9 days

18

How does fruit fly develop make them model organisms?

Short generation time
Can makes crosses and see phenotypes very quickly

19

What genes control stages of early development of fruit flies? These genes necessary to measure the time and location of cells in order to complete development with precision and w/o abnormalities.

A. Egg-polarity genes
B. Segmentation genes
C. Homeotic genes
D. Differentiation genes
E. All of the above
F. A, B, and C

F. A, B, and C

20

Matching:

1. Determination of number and polarity of body segments
2. Establishment of identity of each segment
3. Establishment of main body axes

A. Egg polarity genes
B. Segmentation genes
C. Homeotic genes

1. B. Segmentation genes
2. C. Homeotic genes
3. A. Egg polarity genes

21

Which of the following describes egg polarity genes that function in the determination of anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes of the drosophila embryo?

A. Initiated by mRNA
B. Initiated by paternal mRNA
C. Initiated by maternal miRNA
D. Initiated by maternal mRNA

D. Initiated by maternal mRNA

22

A protein that affects the developmental fate of the surrounding region through a concentration gradient.

Morphogen

23

What is the most important gene for determination of the dorsal-ventral axis in drosophila?

A. Dorsal-ventral gene
B. Dorsal gene
C. Axis determining gene
D. HOX gene

B. Dorsal gene

24

Which of following is/are responsible for anterior-posterior axis determination in drosophila?

A. Biocoid gene
B. Nanos gene
C. Hunchback gene
D. Caudal gene
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

25

Where is dorsal protein concentrated after nuclei migrate to periphery of embryo?

A. Ventral surface
B. Dorsal surface
C. Periphery
D. A and B

A. Ventral surface

26

Poles of embryo are established using _______ of signaling molecules.

Gradients

27

Matching:

1. Anterior determinant
2. Posterior determinant

A. Nanos
B. Hunchback
C. Bicoid
D. Caudal

1. Anterior determinant - Hunchback; Bicoid
2. Posterior determinant - Nanos; caudal

28

Matching:

1. Control the differentiation of the drosophila embryo into individual segment.
2. Affect large sections of embryo
3. Affect alternate segments
4. Affects polarity of segments

A. Gap genes
B. Segment-polarity genes
C. Pair-rule genes
D. Segmentation genes

1. D. Segmentation genes
2. A. Gap genes
3. C. Pair-rule genes
4. B. Segment-polarity genes

29

1. Genes that are responsible for identity of segments

2. Encode transcription factors that help determine the identity of body regions

1. Homeotic genes

2. HOX genes

30

T/F: HOX genes are highly conserved.

True

31

Inappropriate turning on of Homeotic genes may cause:

A. Segmental/positional problems
B. Antennae substituted for legs
C. Non-functional eyes
D. A and B
E. All of the above

D. A and B

32

T/F: Homeotic genes arranged on chromosome in order that they are turned on

True

33

HOX genes:

A. Produce transcription factors
B. Contain homeobox DNA sequence
C. Organization of genes is physically the same as the order of their expression along anterior-posterior axis
D. A and B
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

34

Main difference(s) between Drosophila HOX genes and Human HOX genes?

A. Human do not use HOX genes
B. Humans use HOX A while drosophila use HOX D
C. Humans have 4 families of HOX genes while drosophila have 1
D. Humans have 1 family of HOX genes while drosophila have 4

C.

35

Which human HOX gene is involved in all segmentation of human embryo?

A. HOX A
B. HOX B
C. HOX C
D. HOX D

A. HOX A

36

T/F: As development occurs successively larger regions of the embryo are determined.

False, as development occurs successively larger regions of the embryo are determined.

37

Mutations in Homeotic genes often cause:

A. Deletion of segments
B. Absence of structures
C. too many segments
D. Structures appear in the wrong places

D. Structures appear in the wrong places

38

What is involved in transcriptional control of CV development?

A. Transcription factors
B. Promoter sequences
C. Pre-Initiation complex
D. Enhancers and regulatory sequences
E. Cascade of events
F. All of the above
G. B, C, and D

F. All of the above

39

Why is the flower Arabidopsis thaliana a good model organism?

- Quickly reproduce
- 4 distinct flower parts analogous to human body parts

40

Injured cells dying in uncontrolled manner "Dirty death"

Necrosis

41

Controlled, programmed cell death

Apoptosis

42

Main difference(s) between necrosis and apoptosis:

A. Apoptosis cell shrinks; Necrotic cell swells
B. Apoptotic cell engulfed by macrophage
C. Necrotic cell loses and releases cytoplasmic material
D. Necrotic cell DNA degraded
E. Apoptosis cell DNA degraded
F. A, B, C, D
G. A, B, C, E

G. A, B, C, E

43

T/F: Genes have to be turned on at right time and in right place.

True

44

Mexican tetras live in caves and have lost their eyes through developmental changes in gene expression. What best explains this phenomenon?

A. Loss of function SHH mutation
B. Animal evolved to over express SHH to degenerate developing eye cells because eyes are not needed in cave environment
C. SHH mutation causes expression of eye in wrong place
D. Homeotic mutation causes expression of eye in wrong place

B. Animal evolved to over express SHH to degenerate developing eye cells because eyes are not needed in cave environment

45

What brings about evolution?

Natural selection that causes changes in gene expression

46

Humans and chimps differ in only 1.2% of their genomes, but morphological differences are distinct and big. Why is this the case?

Differences come from how genes regulated in both organisms

47

What is referred to as the biological and psychological development of a human being throughout their lifespan?

Human development