Lecture 23/24: Reptilian GI Physiology (Wellehan) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23/24: Reptilian GI Physiology (Wellehan) Deck (58):
1

monophyletic group

group that contains all descendents from a common ancestor

2

squamate

lizards + snakes

3

first group to branch off from squamates

geckos

4

main radiant heat source

the sun

5

do most reptiles use radiant or contact heat sources in the wild?

radiant. It is difficult to maintain an even gradient with a contact heat source

6

space heaters and aquarium heaters provide contact, radiant, or convective heat?

convective

7

postprandial means:

after a meal

8

How is postprandial metabolic rate affected by temperature?

Higher temp = faster metabolic rate

9

Why are acrodont type teeth clinically relevant?

They are prone to periodontal disease and sloughing of the dental cascade. These type of teeth don't continuously replace themselves
-common in chameleons

10

lead poisoning in gators can lead to:

loss of teeth

11

To do dental work on a gator, which nerve should be blocked?

mandibular

12

Herpesviruses are common in which reptiles?

tortoises and lizards

13

Where do herpesviruses reside histologically?

within host cell nuclei

14

What other clinical signs are assoc. with lizard herpesvirus?

stomatitis and hepatitis

15

Explain why cardio physiology is very important for GI in crocodiles *

Crocodiles have a complete vetricular septum unlike other reptiles. The right aortic arch is the main outflow of the heart, however the left aortic arch persists and carries less oxygenated blood. This blood with a higher CO2 can be carried to the stomach where it helps create a very low pH in the stomach. *ligation of left aorta causes a decrease in gastric acid production*

16

Which animals have a complete ventricular septum?

mammals, birds, crocodiles.

17

Foramen of Panizza

aperture b/w R and L aortic arches. Shrinks with adrenaline

18

Subpulmonary conus

cog-tooth valve that blocks pulmonary outlfow. Opened by adrenaline

19

In crocodiles, the right ventricle feeds which major arteries?

pulmonary and left aorta

20

pathway of respiratory system in birds

trachea --> bronchi --> bronchioles --> lungs --> air capillaries --> air sacs

21

increased bicarbonate --> O2 bound to hemoglobin

decreases. (causes O2 release)

22

gastric acid secretion --> chloride, bicarbonate

depletes chloride, increases bicarb.

23

clades of cryptosporidium are related by:

their trophic form (what part of the GI they infect)

24

clinical signs of cryptosporidium

wasting, gastritis, enteritis, aural polyps. May be asymptomatic

25

methods for diagnosing crypto

- acid fast staining
- stomach washes
- enzyme immunoassay
- PCR (easiest method)
- GI biopsy

26

What are spirurids?

an order of nematodes, often found in gastric mucosa

27

adenoviruses

diverse, stable, non-enveloped viruses found in reptiles. Usually host-specific. Commonly seen in co-infections. clinical signs = enteritis, hepatitis, etc.

28

siadenovirus (a type of adenovirus) is found in which species

tortoises. >80% mortality rate! Never subclinical

29

poster child for adenovirus

bearded dragons

30

Methods of diagnosis for adenovirus

-electron microscopy
-in situ hybridization
-PCR

31

treatment for adenovirus

cidofovir in mammals. No known treatment for reptiles

32

Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma

a somatostatin producing tumor found commonly in bearded dragons. Causes hyperglycemia

33

How are bearded dragons and horses similar with respect to GI?

both are hind gut fermenters

34

eat a meal --> growth and diversity of gut flora

increases. EXCEPT for bacteroidetes, which decreases after eating.

35

eat a meal --> heart ventricular size, size of intestinal villi in pythons

both increase

36

entamoeba invadens

pathogenic protozoal parasite of reptiles, causing colitis and gastritis. Tx = raise temperature (they are temp. sensitive)

37

parabasalidea

-commonly found in normal animals
-assoc. with flagellates
-causes colitis
-tx = metronidazole

38

types of coccidia

intestinal, extraintestinal, intranuclear.

39

methods of diagnosing coccidia

-intestinal: fecal flotation
-extraintestinal: histology
-PCR

40

most effective tx for coccidia?

toltrazuril

41

reovirus

-stable, unenveloped, rapidly reproducing segmented virus
-easily reassorts; hard to vaccinate against
-causes lipid depletion

42

Do nematodes have direct or indirect lifecycle?

direct

43

Do acanthocephala (thorny headed worms) have direct or indirect lifecycle?

indirect

44

3 parts of cloaca

coprodeum, urodeum, proctodeum

45

where is calcium first lost when a reptile makes an egg?

phalanges

46

most common health problem in reptiles

obesity

47

nutritionally simplest reptiles

snakes. All are carnivores, typically eat whole prey.

48

T or F: venom may be necessary for digestion

T

49

Why is it better to feed pre-killed prey to snakes?

no risk of injury, can be stored frozen. However, in feeding frozen fish there is a concern about thiaminase

50

when do snakes typically eat their first meal?

After their first shed

51

Common health problems in captive lizards

-dehydration
-obesity
-underfeeding
-incorrect Ca:P ratio in food
-Vit. D toxicity

52

what causes tongue incoordination in chameleons?

Ca deficiency

53

piscivorous means:

eats fish

54

what are chelonians?

turtles and tortoises

55

prolapses in chelonians are often assoc. with

vitamin A deficiency

56

common health problems in captive chelonians

-secondary hyperparathyroidism to nutritional problem
-vit. A deficiency
-thiamine deficiency

57

lizards require sunlight for:

vitamin D metabolism

58

herbivorous chelonians are prone to:

nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, fiber deficiency, calcium deficiency

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