Lecture 23: Blood Microstructure, Content (2/2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23: Blood Microstructure, Content (2/2) Deck (85):
1

hematopoesis

formation and development of blood cells

very few starting cells produce massive numbers of mature cells

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pleuropotent cell

undifferentiated cell, can give rise to all cell lineages

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what influences hematopoetic stem cell differentiation

cytokein

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are hematopoetic stem cells pleuripotent?

most evidence- only produce blood cells, not other organs, although some info says can make cardiac tissue

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longest living blood cells?

red blood cells, 4 month survival

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most abundant blood cell in body?

red blood cell, 1000x more than white cells

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platelet function

clotting, stop bleeding

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where is blood produced

bone marrow

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yellow marrow

fat

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red marrow

cellular tissue

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megacaryocyte

largest cell in bone marrow, gives rise to platelets

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survival time of granulocyte

< 10 hours

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survival time of platelets

1 week

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how many blood cells lost/replaced every day?

approximately 10 x 10^12

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erythrocytes

RBC
carry oxygen

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leukocytes

WBC
fight infection

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thrombocytes

platelets
hemostasis - control bleeding

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types of blood cells

erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes

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types of blood plasma

electrolytes, proteins, lipids

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electrolyte function

maintain tonicity

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plasma protein function

albumin, globulins (antibodies), clotting factors- stop bleeding

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plasma lipids function

serum

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how much blood in avg person?

5L (70 cc/kg)

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how blood cells differ from other cells

short life span (except lymphocytes, macrophages)

multiplicity of cell types

widely distributed throughout body (only liquid tissue in body)

bone marrow must respond quickly to emergent need for additional cells (7-8x)

hematopoetic stem cells maintained throughout life, through self-renewal process

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how many blood cells produced daily?

10 trillion

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erythroblast

immature RBC in bone marrow

nucleated (big -> small -> extruded) then cell enters peripheral blood

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erythrocytes exhibit what kind of coloration on smear?

polychromasia- many colors

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reticulocyte

newborn erythrocytes

count these in an anemic pt; if count is low, bone marrow problem; if have enough, problem is in peripheral blood

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characteristic of normal small mature lymphocyte

has area of central pallor

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shape of RBC

biconcave disc

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why is RBC not a perfect sphere?

disc shape increases surface area:volume ratio

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functions of RBC per shape

1. increased SA means more gas exchange between oxygen to tissue, CO2 away from tissue

2. deformability- must fit through smallest tiny capillaries in blood

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structure of RBC membrane allows for what?

slippery; doesn't adhere to endothelial cells, doesn't aggregate

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RBC membrane structural components

1. lipid bilayer- slipper, impeded adherence

2. integral membrane proteins- chloride-bicarbonate exchange (band 3)

3. cytoskeleton proteins- maintain cellular shape, deformability, tensile strength

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what don't erythrocytes have?

organelles

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what do erythrocytes use for anaerobic respiration/why?

no mitochondria
need G6PD, NADPH to reduce oxidants and maintain hemoglobin iron in reduced state for O binding

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life span of erythrocyte?

120 days/300 miles

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red cells most important function?

carry oxygen to tissues

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most abundant protein in blood?

hemoglobin

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most abundant protein in plasma?

albumin

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structure of hemoglobin

2 alpha globin chains, 2 beta globin chains, 4 heme molcules w/ iron in center of each

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function of hemoglobin

transports oxygen from lungs to tissues; transports CO2 from tissues to lungs

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what causes sickle cells

defect in hemoglobin structure

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what causes microcytic cells

red cells smaller than should be
iron deficiency causes it

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what happens if RBC become spherocyte

pt becomes anemic because these RBC easily removable from circulation, get hemolized

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megakaryocyte

big cell of bone marrow, see 3-4 in bone marrow aspirate

hyper diploid cell w/ a very large cytoplasm

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why megakaryocyte so large?

undergoes special division where only nucleus divides - ENDOREDUPLICATION

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how does megakaryocyte form

during platelet formation, cytoplasm breaks off into little pieces; leaves lung; enters bone marrow, breaks down further; becomes platelet

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platelet clumping

in vitro artifact of megakaryocyte

causes incorrect CBC

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characteristics of platelets

anuclear, 1-3u, 7-10 day life span, 150-400,000/ul, all organelles, electronic dense granules, microtubules, contractile proteins, membrane proteins

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functions of platelets

first line defense at vascular injury site (adhesion, activation, aggregation)

platform for fibrin formation (clot)

mediate inflammation

mediate vascular constriction (serotonin)

mediate fibroblast proliferation (PDGF)

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thrombocytopenia

too few platelets, results in bleeding in mucocutaneous locations like mucosa, lips, skin

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types of WBC

leukocytes = WBC

neutrophil (55-65%, eosinophil (2-5%), basophil (1%), monocyte (3-8%), lymphocyte (20-25%)

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2 groups of WBC

granulocyte (granules in cytoplasm), agranuloocyte

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most numerous type of granulocyte?

neutrophil

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most numerous agranulocyte?

lymphocyte

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normal WBC count?

5-10 x 10^3 leukocytes/ul

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most mature form of neutrophil in blood?

segmented neutrophil

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neutrophil types

band, segmented

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neutrophil life span

6 hours in blood; 1-5 days in tissues

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proteins in neutrophils

actin, myosin

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cytoplasmic granules in neutrophils

specific: lysozyme, alk phos;
non-specific: acid phos, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase

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neutrophil function

motility (contractile proteins) - chemotaxins, released at site of tissue damage, attract PMNs to infected/inflammed tissue

endocytosis/phagocytosis

endotoxin mediates G-CSF, GM-CSF release from marrow stromal cells resulting in neutrophilia

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what are released when infection/tissue damage occurs, that attracts neutrophils?

hemotaxins

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how do neutrophils fight infection?

leave circulation, form pseudopoedia, engulf bacteria/damaged tissue and release phagosomes, break apart/kill bacteria, allow blood to wash away

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leukocytosis

too many WBC

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granulocytosis

too many granulocytes

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what kind of disease is chronic myelogenous leukemia?

granulocytosis

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eoisnophil characteristics

bipobed nucleus; specific granules

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how long do eosinophils live?

circulate for several hours after leaving marrow; then enter skin, pulmonary or GI mucosa; may migrate into local secretions

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what do eosinophils do?

phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

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what kind of receptors do eosinophils have?

receptors for IgE

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when are there increased numbers of eosinophils?

allergy, parasitic infections

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what do basophil granules contain?

heparin, histamine

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what kind of receptors do basophils have?

receptors for IgE, produced by plasma cells in response to allergens; when bound, degranulation and release of histamine occurs

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what do basophils do

mediate allergic responses

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what are basophils precursors of?

tissue mast cells

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what type of granules do monocytes have?

azurophilic granules, with lysosomal enzymes

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what type of receptors do monocytes have?

Fc and Complement receptors on surface

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how long do monocytes live?

differentiate into tissue macrophages -> live months to years

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characteristics of monocytes

motile, phagocytic

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lymphocyte function

effect immune response

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T cell function

lymphocyte- cell mediated immunity

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B cell function

lymphocyte- humor immunity

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what percentage of blood leukocytes are monocytes?

3-8%