Lecture #24,25,26 Respiratory System I & II Flashcards Preview

FTM Anatomy Group > Lecture #24,25,26 Respiratory System I & II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture #24,25,26 Respiratory System I & II Deck (65):
1

What are the conduction portions of the respiratory system?

Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Terminal Bronchioles

2

What are the respiratory portions of the respiratory system?

Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sac Alveoli

3

In the nasal cavities, what makes up the roof boundaries?

nasal, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid bones from anterior to posterior

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4

In the nasal cavities, what makes up the floor boundaries?

Maxilla and palantine bone

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5

In the nasal cavities, what makes up the medial boundaries?

septal cartilage, vomer and ethmoid bones, from anterior to posterior

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6

In the nasal cavities, what makes up the lateral boundaries?

Formed by three “scroll/shell-like” nasal conchae or turbinates:

superior, middle and inferior meatuses

behind these are the ethmoid air cells and the maxillary sinuses

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7

Where does the sphenoethmoidal recess drain?

Sphenoethmoidal recess: above the superior concha: drains the sphenoid sinus.

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8

What does the superior meatus drain?

Superior meatus: drains the posterior ethmoid

9

What does the middle meatus drain?

Middle meatus: drains the maxillary, middle ethmoidal and frontal.

10

What does the inferior meatus drain?

Inferior meatus: drains the nasolacrimal duct.

11

Where do the frontal sinuses open?

• Lies anterior to cranial cavity superior to the orbits.

• Opens into the middle meatus.

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12

Where does the maxillary sinuses open?

Opens into the middle meatus.

• Largest of the sinuses, lateral to the nasal cavity, inferior to the orbit, superior to the oral cavity: root of the molar teeth project into it.

• Most prone to infection due to drainage against gravity.

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13

Where do the ethmoid sinuses open?

• Form a paper thin wall between the orbit & the nasal cavity

• Opens into the superior & middle meatuses.

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14

Where do the sphenoid sinuses drain?

• Lie below the sellaturcica and posteriorly above the nasal cavity.

• Drain into the spheno-ethmoidal recess above the superior concha/turbinate.

15

What muscles are involved in phonation in the pharynx?

• Forward tilting of the thyroid cartilage in relation to the cricoid cartilage lengthens the vocal cords producing a higher pitch.

• The cricothyroid muscle brings this about while the thyroartenoid muscle reverses it.

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16

What muscles are involved in breathing in the pharynx?

• Lateral rotation of the arytenoid cartilages on the cricoid cartilage separates the vocal cords, opening the airway.

• The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles bring this about while the lateral cricarytenoid reverses this movement.

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17

Identify

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18

Identify

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19

Identify

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20

Identify

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21

What are the structures of voice production? 

Structures of voice production      

The mucous membranes of the larynx forms 2 folds

Vestibular fold (false vocal cords). (psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells)
Vocal fold (true vocal cords).  (stratified squamous non keratinised)

 

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22

What type of epithelium lines the vestibular folds? 

 Vestibular fold (false vocal cords)
Lined by psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

 

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23

What type of epithelium lines vocal fold? 

 

Vocal fold (true vocal cords).

Lined by stratified squamous non keratinised

 

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24

The space between the vocal cords is called the _____________.

rima glottidis 

25

The space below the vestibular fold is called the _____________

 

ventricle

26

What are the 4 layers of the trachea? 

• Mucosa
• Submucosa
• Hyaline cartilage
• Adventitia 

27

Where would you find this epithelium? 

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28

Where would you find this epithelium? 

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29

Identify

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30

Identify the cell components.  

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31

What are the two types of alveolar epithelial cells? 

2 types of alveolar epithelial cells


Type I alveolar cells – form nearly continuous lining, more numerous than type II, main site of gas exchange

Type II alveolar cells (septal cells) – free surfaces contain microvilli, secrete alveolar fluid (surfactant
reduces tendency to collapse)

 

32

Describe the different pleurals of the lung. 

 Each lung enclosed by double-layered pleural membrane
Parietal pleura – lines wall of thoracic cavity

Visceral pleura – covers lungs themselves

 

33

Describe the branching of the bronchial tree.

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34

Identify.

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35

Identify

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36

Identify

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37

Describe the gross anatomy of the lungs.

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38

Identify.

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39

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40

Describe the global changes of the respiratory tract.

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41

What is the difference between Pneumothorax and Haemothorax?

 

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42

What are is the embryological derivative from the endoderm of respiratory diverticulum?

Epithelium & glands of the trachea, bronchi and alveoli 

 

43

What are is the embryological derivative of the somatic mesoderm?

– Associated connective tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle

– Parietal pleura

 

44

What are is the embryological derivative splanchnic mesoderm?

 

Visceral Pleura

45

Which of the following is a part of the cartilaginous framework of the nose?

a. arytenoid cartilage

b. cricoid cartilage

c. alar cartilage

d. cartilage of the carina

e. cuneiform cartilage

c. alar cartilage

46

The nasopharynx extends from the

a. exterior of the body to the nasal conchae.

b. oropharynx to the laryngopharynx.

c. nasal cavity to the soft palate.

d. soft palate to the hyoid bone.

e. mouth to the esophagus.

c. nasal cavity to the soft palate.

47

The trachea extends from the

a. laryngopharynx to the larynx.

b. epiglottis to the bronchi.

c. hyoid bone to the fourth cervical vertebra.

d. fourth to sixth cervical vertebrae.

e. larynx to the fifth thoracic vertebra.

e. larynx to the fifth thoracic vertebra.

48

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found in the

a. visceral pleura.

b. alveoli.

c. oropharynx.

d. trachea.

e. Both c and d are correct

d. trachea.

49

Which of the following is not a component of the conducting portion of the respiratory system?

a. terminal bronchiole

b. larynx

c. bronchus

d. trachea

e. respiratory bronchiole

e. respiratory bronchiole

50

Which of the following structures is the smallest in diameter?

a. left primary bronchus

b. respiratory bronchioles

c. secondary bronchi

d. alveolar ducts

e. right primary bronchus

d. alveolar ducts

51

Inhalation (inspiration) occurs when:

a. the phrenic nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm, which then flattens, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

b. the diaphragm relaxes and flattens, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

c. the phrenic nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm, which then forms a dome, thus decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

d. the vagus (X) nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm, which then flattens, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

e. the vagus (X) nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm, which then forms a dome, thus decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

a. the phrenic nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm, which then flattens, thus increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity.

52

The spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm followed by a spasmodic closure of the rima glottidis produces a sharp sound on inhalation. The stimulus for this respiratory movement is usually irritation of the sensory nerve endings of the gastrointestinal tract. What particular respiratory movement has just been described?

a. sneezing

b. yawning

c. laughing

d. hiccupping

e. coughing

d. hiccupping

53

C-shaped cartilage rings support the ________________ .

trachea

54

The flap-like structure that prevents aspiration of solid and liquid substances into the trachea is called the ___________________.

epiglottis

55

The space between the vocal folds is called the rima _______________, whereas the space between the ventricular folds is called the rima ______________.

glottidis, vestibuli

 

56

A section of lung tissue supplied by a tertiary bronchus is called a _________________.

lobule

 

 

57

Collapse of all or part of a lung is called _________.

atelectasis 

58

The component of alveolar fluid that reduces the tendency for alveoli to collapse is _____________.

surfactant

59

Bronchioles have more smooth muscle and less cartilage than bronchi. (T/F)

TRUE

60

The pharynx, larynx, and trachea are parts of the upper respiratory system. (T/F)

TRUE

61

The trachea is posterior to the esophagus. (T/F)

FALSE (The trachea is anterior to the esophagus.)

62

The branches of the aorta that carry blood to the lungs are the pulmonary arteries. (T/F)

FALSE (The branches of the aorta that carry blood to the lungs are the bronchial arteries.)

63

Match the following terms to their descriptions:

(1) right lung

(2) left lung

(a) thicker, broader, and shorter than the other lung

(b) has a cardiac notch

(c) has only two secondary bronchi

(d) has a horizontal fissure

(e) has a primary bronchus that is shorter, wider, and more vertical

(a) thicker, broader, and shorter than the other lung

(1) right lung 

(b) has a cardiac notch

(2) left lung

(c) has only two secondary bronchi

(2) left lung

(d) has a horizontal fissure

(1) right lung

(e) has a primary bronchus that is shorter, wider, and more vertical

(1) right lung

64

Which is the correct order, from superficial to deep, of the following five structures? (1) parietal pleura, (2) visceral pleura, (3) pleural cavity, (4) lung, (5) wall of thoracic cavity.

a. 5,1,3,2,4

b. 5,3,1,2,4

c. 4,2,3,1,5

d. 5,1,2,4,3

e. 5,2,3,1,4

b. 5,3,1,2,4

65

Place numbers in the blanks to indicate the route through which air passes as it enters a lobule en route to alveoli. (a) alveolar ducts:__________; (b) respiratory bronchiole: ___________; (c) terminal bronchiole: _____________

(a)3 (b)2 (c)1