Lecture 24 - Protists I (SI) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 24 - Protists I (SI) Deck (20):
1

Excavata

-characterized by cytoskeleton
-some have excavated feeding groove

2

What are the 3 groups of Excavata?

1. diplomonads
2. parabasids
3. euglenozoans

3

Structure Excavata

Diplomonads: reduced mitochondria (mitozones) + 2 nuclei + multiple flagella
Parabasalids: reduced mitochondria (hydrogenozomes)
Euglenozoans: spiral/crystalline rod inside flagellum

4

Metabolism Excavata

Diplomonads: anaerobic biochemical pathways
Parabasalids: generate some energy (anaerobically)
Euglenozoans: everything (hetero/auto/mixotrophs, parasites)

5

Examples Excavata

Diplomonads: Giardia intestinalis
Parabasalids: Trichomonas vaginalis (yeast infections)
Euglenozoans: African sleeping sickness, Euglenids

6

Which Excavata lack mitochondria?

1. diplomonads
2. parabasalids

7

What is the archaezoa hypothesis?

-false
-protists are derived from ancient eukaryotic lineages before the cquisition of endosymbiotic bacteria that evolved into mitochondria

8

What is the accepted theory about mitochondria in protists?

protists lost their normal mitochondria during their evolution

9

Alveolata

-supported by molecular evidence
-members have alveoli

10

What are alveolli?

-small membrane-bound cavities with unknown function
-may aid in cell surface/water/ion regulation

11

Euglenoids

characterized by an anterior pocket from which one or two flagella emerge

12

Kinetoplastids

have single large mitochondrion associated with a unique organelle (kinetoplast)

13

What are 3 groups in chromalvealata?

1. Dinoflagellates
2. Apicomplexans
3. Cliates

14

Structure Chromalvealata

Dinoflagellates: cellular plats, 2 spinning flagella in perpendicular grooves, bioluminsecent

15

Metabolism Chromalvealata

Dinoflagellates: part of plankton or hetertrophic
Apicomplexans: anaerobic biochemical pathways

16

Ecology Chromalvealata

Dinoflagellates: unicellular or colonial
Apicomplexans: Plasmodea

17

What is plasmodium?

-causes malaria
-spends life cycle in mosquitoes + humans

18

Why has there been a resurgence of malaria?

-resistant varieties of the mosquitoes + plasmodium species
-300 million infected in the tropics
-vaccine development difficult

19

Why is vaccine development difficult for malaria?

parasite changes its surface proteins

20

What is a potential defense against malaria?

rlease millions of genetically modified male mosquitoes