Flashcards in Lecture 24-Reproductive System Deck (56):
Reproduction is the process of producing __________ from __________.
Generation of new individuals without the fusion of egg and sperm (Examples: fission, budding, parthenogenesis).
Fusion of haploid gametes forming a diploid cell, called the zygote.
Diploid cell formed through sexual reproduction.
Advantages to sexual reproduction:
Creation of genetic variation, recombination, and DNA repair
Disadvantages to sexual reproduction:
Only one sex can bear young, males and females must search each other out, only half of the genes are passed on
Gametes are __________ reproductive cells.
Produced by male. Small, motile, hundreds of millions produced each day.
Produced by female. Large, nonmotile, one produced each month (500 per lifetime).
Spiders have __________, which is the modification of the appendages (basically a spider penis).
Ducks have this, which travels through the convoluted female reproductive tract.
Snakes have a:
Most mammals have __________, which is a bone inside the penis. Humans don't have this.
Site for egg production.
Aka Fallopian tube.
Thick, muscular organ (womb).
Inner lining of the uterus.
Male gonads consisting of many highly coiled tubes.
Site for sperm maturation.
Produces mucus, fructose, coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acids, and prostaglandins.
Produces,anticoagulant enzymes and citrate.
__________ in females are homologous to testes in males.
__________ in females is homologous to penis in males.
Production of male gametes.
Sperm production in males is continuous from __________ to ___________.
Puberty to death
How many sperm in each ejaculate?
About 160 million
Under the right conditions, sperms can survive about _____ days in a female.
Testes produce sperm in highly coiled tubules called:
Production of female gametes.
Immature eggs form in the ovary of the __________ __________, but do not complete until __________ __________.
Female embryo, sexual maturation
Ploidy of primary spermatocyte:
Ploidy of secondary spermatocyte:
In embryo: (ploidy stages)
Primordial germ cell (2n)-----> Oogonia (2n)-----> Primary oocyte (2n)
At liberty, completion of meiosis I to result in __________ __________.
The development of a secondary oocyte is arrested at __________ of __________.
Metaphase, meiosis II
After fertilization, completion of meiosis II results in:
A fertilized egg
In spermatogenesis, all _____ products of meiosis develop into gametes.
In spermatogenesis, mitotic division occurs throughout __________ and __________.
Mature sperm is produced from __________ __________ without interruption.
In oogenesis, __________ __________ results in a single gamete.
In oogenesis, mitotic division is completed before:
In females, gametogenesis ceases at about age:
Mature eggs are produced from precursor cells with:
Master gland the produces many hormones.
Anterior pituitary gland
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is produced in the:
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is produced in the:
Anterior pituitary glands
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is produced in the:
Anterior pituitary gland
Testosterone is produced in the:
_____ and _____ are required for normal spermatogenesis.
FSH and LH
FSH promotes activity of:
In the __________ ___________ follicles mature, ovulation, corpus luteum degenerates.
In the __________ __________ there are changes in the uterus (thickening and shedding of endometrium)(28 day cycle).
Key hormones in the female reproductive cycle are:
GnRH, LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone