Flashcards in Lecture 26-Sensory/Muscular/Skeletal System Deck (60):
__________ __________ transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the CNS.
Detection of a stimulus by sensory cells.
Conversion of a stimulus to a change in membrane potential.
Transmission of sensory information through nervous system via action potentials.
Action potential reaching brain via sensory neurons.
Transduction of stimuli by sensory receptors is subject __________ and __________.
Amplification and adaptation
Strengthening of a sensory signal during transduction via enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Decrease in responsiveness upon continued stimulation.
__________ do not adapt.
There are_____ types of sensory receptors.
What are the 5 types of sensory receptors?
Mechanoreceptors, electromagnetic receptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors
What types of stimuli do mechanoreceptors respond to?
Pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound
What types of stimuli do electromagnetic receptors respond to?
Visible light, electricity, and magnetism
What types of stimuli do thermoreceptors respond to?
Heat and cold
What types of stimuli do chemoreceptors respond to?
Smell and taste
What types of stimuli do nociceptors respond to?
Human skin has __________, __________, and __________.
Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors
Transduction of pressure waves into nerve impulses.
Hearing uses what kind of receptors?
Human ears are divided into _____ areas.
Collects and channels sound waves.
Transduction in cochlea.
Transduction in the cochlea relies on __________ __________ and __________ __________.
Hair cells, basilar membrane
The human ear is also an organ of __________ and __________.
Mechanoreceptors in the inner ear detect equilibrium using:
Detect angular movement (have three spatial planes).
Detect position and linear acceleration.
Utricle and saccule
The sense of taste relies on:
Taste receptor cells in tongue and mouth.
Taste receptor cells are also __________ cells.
Any region of the tongue with taste buds can taste:
Any if the five types
There are specific receptors for specific __________.
There are _____ tastants.
What are the 5 tastants?
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
The sense of smell relies on:
Sensory cells are __________.
Humans have more than 1000:
Odorant receptor genes
Focusing is achieved by the shape of the __________.
Focusing is achieved by the shape of the lens, controlled by:
The thicker the lens:
The more sharply light is bent
The retina contains layers of __________ and __________.
The retina contains _____ types of photoreceptors.
What are the 2 types of photoreceptors the retina contains.
Rods and cones
Sensitive to light; do not distinguish color.
Color vision (red, green, blue), contribute little to night vision.
Skeletal muscle is organized __________.
Attached to bones, striated.
The hierarchical organization of skeletal muscle:
Muscle fiber -----> myofibril -----> thin filament (actin) -----> thick filament (myosin)
Basic contractile unit of muscle.
Muslim contraction is achieved by:
__________ systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion.
A typical adult human skeleton consists of _____ bones.
The glomerulus is the site for:
The colored part of the vertebrate eye, formed by the anterior portion of the choroid.
The structure in an eye that focuses light rays onto the photoreceptors.
The innermost layer of the vertebrate eye, containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and neurons; transmits images formed by the lens to the brain via the optic nerve.