Lecture 26-Sensory/Muscular/Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 26-Sensory/Muscular/Skeletal System Deck (60):
0

__________ __________ transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the CNS.

Sensory receptors

1

Detection of a stimulus by sensory cells.

Sensory receptors

2

Conversion of a stimulus to a change in membrane potential.

Transduction

3

Transmission of sensory information through nervous system via action potentials.

Transmission

4

Action potential reaching brain via sensory neurons.

Perception

5

Transduction of stimuli by sensory receptors is subject __________ and __________.

Amplification and adaptation

6

Strengthening of a sensory signal during transduction via enzyme catalyzed reactions.

Amplification

7

Decrease in responsiveness upon continued stimulation.

Sensory adaptation

8

__________ do not adapt.

Nociceptors

9

There are_____ types of sensory receptors.

5

10

What are the 5 types of sensory receptors?

Mechanoreceptors, electromagnetic receptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors

11

What types of stimuli do mechanoreceptors respond to?

Pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound

12

What types of stimuli do electromagnetic receptors respond to?

Visible light, electricity, and magnetism

13

What types of stimuli do thermoreceptors respond to?

Heat and cold

14

What types of stimuli do chemoreceptors respond to?

Smell and taste

15

What types of stimuli do nociceptors respond to?

Pain

16

Human skin has __________, __________, and __________.

Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors

17

Transduction of pressure waves into nerve impulses.

Hearing

18

Hearing uses what kind of receptors?

Mechanoreceptors

19

Human ears are divided into _____ areas.

5

20

Collects and channels sound waves.

Outer ears

21

Transmits vibrations.

Middle ear

22

Transduction in cochlea.

Inner ear

23

Transduction in the cochlea relies on __________ __________ and __________ __________.

Hair cells, basilar membrane

24

The human ear is also an organ of __________ and __________.

Balance, equilibrium

25

Mechanoreceptors in the inner ear detect equilibrium using:

Moving fluid

26

Detect angular movement (have three spatial planes).

Semicircular canals

27

Detect position and linear acceleration.

Utricle and saccule

28

The sense of taste relies on:

Chemoreceptors

29

Taste receptor cells in tongue and mouth.

Taste buds

30

Taste receptor cells are also __________ cells.

Epithelial

31

Any region of the tongue with taste buds can taste:

Any if the five types

32

There are specific receptors for specific __________.

Tastants

33

There are _____ tastants.

5

34

What are the 5 tastants?

Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami

35

The sense of smell relies on:

Chemoreceptors

36

Sensory cells are __________.

Neurons

37

Humans have more than 1000:

Odorant receptor genes

38

Focusing is achieved by the shape of the __________.

Lens

39

Focusing is achieved by the shape of the lens, controlled by:

Ciliary muscles

40

The thicker the lens:

The more sharply light is bent

41

The retina contains layers of __________ and __________.

Neurons, photoreceptors

42

The retina contains _____ types of photoreceptors.

2

43

What are the 2 types of photoreceptors the retina contains.

Rods and cones

44

Sensitive to light; do not distinguish color.

Rods

45

Color vision (red, green, blue), contribute little to night vision.

Cones

46

Skeletal muscle is organized __________.

Hierarchically

47

Attached to bones, striated.

Skeletal muscle

48

Thin filament:

Actin

49

Thick filament:

Myosin

50

The hierarchical organization of skeletal muscle:

Muscle fiber -----> myofibril -----> thin filament (actin) -----> thick filament (myosin)

51

Basic contractile unit of muscle.

Sarcomere

52

Muslim contraction is achieved by:

Myosin-actin interaction

53

__________ systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion.

Skeletal

54

A typical adult human skeleton consists of _____ bones.

206

55

The glomerulus is the site for:

Filtration

56

The colored part of the vertebrate eye, formed by the anterior portion of the choroid.

Iris

57

The structure in an eye that focuses light rays onto the photoreceptors.

Lens

58

The innermost layer of the vertebrate eye, containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and neurons; transmits images formed by the lens to the brain via the optic nerve.

Retina

59

Back-and-forth movement of a body part is generally accomplished by:

Antagonistic muscles