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Flashcards in lecture 27: energy balance internal reg. Deck (29):
1

what is the BMI corresponding to obesity?

BMI >30

2

what are major organs involved in regulation of energy homeostasis?

GI tract
brain
pancreas
adipose tissue

3

what is the name of the appetite stimulant?

ghrelin

4

what are the names of appetite suppressants?

CCK
GLP
Peptide YY (PYY)

5

where are appetite suppressants found?

small intestine

6

how can ghrelin lead to hyperglycemia?

contributes to regulation of glucose by inhibiting insulin

7

what secretes glucagon-like peptide (GLP)?

L cells in ileum

8

what effect does GLP have on energy balance?

dec. appetite
inc. satiety

9

what does GIP stand for?

glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

10

what is GIP secreted by?

K cells in duodenum and jejunum

11

what effect do both GIP and GLP share?

increase insulin secretion = incretin effect

increase pancreatic beta cell survival + growth

12

what secretes PYY?

L cells in ileum and colon after a meal

13

what effect does PYY have?

reduce food intake and induces negative energy balance

inhibits acid secretion, gastric emptying, intestinal transit and pancreatic exocrine secretions

14

what effect on energy balance does ghrelin have?

inc. appetite
dec. energy expenditure
inc. body weight

15

what other actions does ghrelin have?

dec. insulin
inc. growth hormone

16

what is ghrelin stimulated by?

fasting (low glucose, insulin)

17

where is the primary production site of ghrelin?

stomach = P and D1 cells

18

where is CCK made?

I cells in duodenum/jejunum

19

what stimulates CCK production?

monitor peptide
CCK releasing factor
fatty acids

20

what effect on energy balance does CCK have?

dec. appetite
inc. satiety
meal termination

21

what other actions does CCK have?

inc. pancreatic enzymes to gallbladder

22

what stimulates production of GLP?

luminal food components

23

what effect on energy balance does GLP have?

dec. appetite
inc. satiety

24

what other actions does GLP do?

inc. insulin
dec. gastric motility

25

what stimulates production of GIP?

luminal food components

26

what other actions does GIP have?

inc. insulin
inc. fat accumulation

27

what stimulates production of PYY?

luminal food components

28

what effect on energy balance does PYY have?

dec. appetite
dec. food intake
dec. energy balance

29

what other actions does PYY have?

dec. acid
dec. intestinal transit