Flashcards in Lecture 28-Plant Nutrition and Development Deck (76):
Plants need light, CO2, water, minerals, and nutrients for __________ and __________.
What do plants need for development and reproduction?
Light, CO2, water, minerals, and nutrients
Plants get __________ and __________ from above the ground.
Light and CO2
Plants get __________ and __________ from below ground.
Water and minerals
These are required to complete life cycle and produce another generation.
Plants require nutrients in different __________.
Nutrients that are required in large amounts.
Nutrients that are required in small amounts.
Examples of macronutrients:
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur
Examples of micronutrients:
Chlorine, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, nickel, and molybdenum
Shoot system generate __________ through photosynthesis.
______ carbon dioxide molecules + ______ water molecules + light energy = sugar.
These involve both the root system and shoot system.
Resource acquisition and transport
Resource acquisition and transport involve both:
The root system and the shoot system
What are the two different mechanisms of transportation in plant?
Short distance transport and long distance transport
What is associated with long distance transport?
Bulk flow (pressure gradient)
What is associated with short distance transport?
Solutes and water across plasma membranes
Solutes moving across a plasma membrane is associated with:
Diffusion and active transport
Water flowing across a plasma membrane is associated with:
What are the two major compartments that plant tissues have?
Apoplasts and symplast
Compartmental structure of plant cells provides _____ routes of transportation.
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
The loss of water from leaves (mostly through stomata).
Transpiration creates a force within leaves that does what?
Pulls xylem sap upward
Through stomata, leaves do what?
Take in CO2 and release O2
__________ are produced by photosynthesis in the leaves.
__________ __________ can flow both ways between shoots and roots.
What does phloem sap do?
Moves from sites of sugar production or storage to sites of sugar use or storage
__________ exchange gases with the air spaces of soil, taking in O2 and discharging CO2.
Water and minerals are transported upward from roots to shoots as:
What in the soil are absorbed by roots?
Water and minerals
Phloem sap moves from sites of sugar production (usually __________) or storage (usually __________) to sites of sugar use or storage
The movement of liquid in response to a pressure gradient.
The apoplast is the continuum of:
Cells walls and extracellular spaces
The symplast is the continuum of:
Cytosol connected by plasmodesmata
What are the 3 routes of transportation provided by the compartmental structure plant cells?
Apoplastic route, symplastic route, and transmembrane route
Water and solute move along a continuum formed by cell walls, extracellular spaces, dead interiors of tracheids, and vessels.
Water and solute move out of one cell, across the cell wall, and into the neighboring cell.
Water and solute move along a continuum of cytosol of cells, connected by plasmodesmata.
Short-distance transport of water is due to:
Transport of water molecules across membranes is facilitated by transport proteins called:
__________ molecules can pass through pores, but __________ molecules cannot.
Water molecules do what to sugar molecules?
Cluster around them
Short-distance transport of solute across plasma membranes mostly relies on what?
A proton pump
In active transport in plant cells, the most important transport proteins are:
What do proton pumps do?
They use energy from ATP to pump protons out of a cell
Proton pumps contribute to the __________ __________ and the establishment of a __________ __________ across the membrane.
Membrane potential, pH gradient
Proton pumps can also __________ other solutes such as sucrose.
Transport of water and minerals from root hairs to xylem relies on __________ and __________.
Diffusion, active transport
Transport of water and minerals from __________ __________ to __________ relies on diffusion and active transport.
Root hairs, xylem
Innermost layer of cells in root cortex.
Describe the endodermis.
It is the last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals.
A belt made of suberin.
The Casparian strip
Describe what the Casparian belt does?
Prevents water and minerals from entering stele through the apoplastic pathway.
Bulk flow in xylem is powered by what?
Transpiration, cohesion, adhesion, and tension
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Negative pressure potential.
Loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plants.
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules and cell walls.
__________ __________ forms an unbroken chain of water molecules extending from leaves to soil.
The force driving the ascent of xylem sap is a:
Gradient of water potential
__________ regulate transpiration.
_____% water loss through stomata.
Stomatal opening and closing depend on __________ and __________ movement in guard cells.
This depends on water and potassium movement in guard cells.
Stomatal opening and closing
What is stomata affected by?
Light, CO2 depletion, and internal "clock"
Sugars are transported from __________ to __________ via the phloem.
Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the:
Plant organ that is a net producer of sugar by photosynthesis or by breakdown of starch.
Plant organ that is a net consumer or depository of sugar.
Transport of the products of photosynthesis.
Aqueous solution that flows through sieve tubes.
Phloem sap is up to 30% what?
Phloem sap is up to _____% sucrose.