Lecture 28-Plant Nutrition and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 28-Plant Nutrition and Development Deck (76):
0

Plants need light, CO2, water, minerals, and nutrients for __________ and __________.

Development, reproduction

1

What do plants need for development and reproduction?

Light, CO2, water, minerals, and nutrients

2

Plants get __________ and __________ from above the ground.

Light and CO2

3

Plants get __________ and __________ from below ground.

Water and minerals

4

These are required to complete life cycle and produce another generation.

Essential elements

5

Plants require nutrients in different __________.

Quantities

6

Nutrients that are required in large amounts.

Macronutrients

7

Nutrients that are required in small amounts.

Micronutrients

8

Examples of macronutrients:

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur

9

Examples of micronutrients:

Chlorine, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, nickel, and molybdenum

10

Shoot system generate __________ through photosynthesis.

Sugar

11

______ carbon dioxide molecules + ______ water molecules + light energy = sugar.

6

12

These involve both the root system and shoot system.

Resource acquisition and transport

13

Resource acquisition and transport involve both:

The root system and the shoot system

14

What are the two different mechanisms of transportation in plant?

Short distance transport and long distance transport

15

What is associated with long distance transport?

Bulk flow (pressure gradient)

16

What is associated with short distance transport?

Solutes and water across plasma membranes

17

Solutes moving across a plasma membrane is associated with:

Diffusion and active transport

18

Water flowing across a plasma membrane is associated with:

Diffusion

19

What are the two major compartments that plant tissues have?

Apoplasts and symplast

20

Compartmental structure of plant cells provides _____ routes of transportation.

3

21

The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.

Photosynthesis

22

The loss of water from leaves (mostly through stomata).

Transpiration

23

Transpiration creates a force within leaves that does what?

Pulls xylem sap upward

24

Through stomata, leaves do what?

Take in CO2 and release O2

25

__________ are produced by photosynthesis in the leaves.

Sugars

26

__________ __________ can flow both ways between shoots and roots.

Phloem sap

27

What does phloem sap do?

Moves from sites of sugar production or storage to sites of sugar use or storage

28

__________ exchange gases with the air spaces of soil, taking in O2 and discharging CO2.

Roots

29

Water and minerals are transported upward from roots to shoots as:

Xylem sap

30

What in the soil are absorbed by roots?

Water and minerals

31

Phloem sap moves from sites of sugar production (usually __________) or storage (usually __________) to sites of sugar use or storage

Leaves, roots

32

The movement of liquid in response to a pressure gradient.

Bulk flow

33

The apoplast is the continuum of:

Cells walls and extracellular spaces

34

The symplast is the continuum of:

Cytosol connected by plasmodesmata

35

What are the 3 routes of transportation provided by the compartmental structure plant cells?

Apoplastic route, symplastic route, and transmembrane route

36

Water and solute move along a continuum formed by cell walls, extracellular spaces, dead interiors of tracheids, and vessels.

Apoplastic route

37

Water and solute move out of one cell, across the cell wall, and into the neighboring cell.

Transmembrane route

38

Water and solute move along a continuum of cytosol of cells, connected by plasmodesmata.

Symplastic route

39

Short-distance transport of water is due to:

Diffusion

40

Transport of water molecules across membranes is facilitated by transport proteins called:

Aquaporins

41

__________ molecules can pass through pores, but __________ molecules cannot.

Water, sugar

42

Water molecules do what to sugar molecules?

Cluster around them

43

Short-distance transport of solute across plasma membranes mostly relies on what?

A proton pump

44

In active transport in plant cells, the most important transport proteins are:

Proton pumps

45

What do proton pumps do?

They use energy from ATP to pump protons out of a cell

46

Proton pumps contribute to the __________ __________ and the establishment of a __________ __________ across the membrane.

Membrane potential, pH gradient

47

Proton pumps can also __________ other solutes such as sucrose.

Cotransport

48

Transport of water and minerals from root hairs to xylem relies on __________ and __________.

Diffusion, active transport

49

Transport of water and minerals from __________ __________ to __________ relies on diffusion and active transport.

Root hairs, xylem

50

Innermost layer of cells in root cortex.

Endodermis

51

Describe the endodermis.

It is the last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals.

52

A belt made of suberin.

The Casparian strip

53

Describe what the Casparian belt does?

Prevents water and minerals from entering stele through the apoplastic pathway.

54

Bulk flow in xylem is powered by what?

Transpiration, cohesion, adhesion, and tension

55

Hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

Cohesion

56

Negative pressure potential.

Tension

57

Loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plants.

Transpiration

58

Hydrogen bonding between water molecules and cell walls.

Adhesion

59

__________ __________ forms an unbroken chain of water molecules extending from leaves to soil.

Hydrogen bonding

60

The force driving the ascent of xylem sap is a:

Gradient of water potential

61

Stomata regulate:

Transpiration

62

__________ regulate transpiration.

Stomata

63

_____% water loss through stomata.

95%

64

Stomatal opening and closing depend on __________ and __________ movement in guard cells.

Water, potassium

65

This depends on water and potassium movement in guard cells.

Stomatal opening and closing

66

What is stomata affected by?

Light, CO2 depletion, and internal "clock"

67

Sugars are transported from __________ to __________ via the phloem.

Sources, sinks

68

Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the:

Phloem

69

Plant organ that is a net producer of sugar by photosynthesis or by breakdown of starch.

Sugar source

70

Plant organ that is a net consumer or depository of sugar.

Sugar sink

71

Transport of the products of photosynthesis.

Translocation

72

Aqueous solution that flows through sieve tubes.

Phloem sap

73

Phloem sap is up to 30% what?

Sucrose

74

Phloem sap is up to _____% sucrose.

30%

75

Multicellular haploid and diploid generations take turns producing each other.

Alternation of generations