Flashcards in Lecture 28 - Respiratory Drugs Deck (59)
What are the changes seen in an asthmatics airway?
Mucosal inflammation + edema
Smooth muscle contraction
What is happening at the cellular level with allergies and the airway wall?
Allergen stimulates = Mast cell + DC
Mast cell = Stim. Neu + EOS
EOS = DC's
DCs --> Th2 --> EOS
What molecule causes bronchodilation?
increase in cAMP
What two things affect the levels of cAMP?
AC + PDE
What occurs at the level of AC in regards to bronchial activity?
Beta agonists stimulate = Increase in AC = Increase cAMP
What occurs at the level of the PDE in regards to bronchial activity?
Theophylline inhibits = Increase cAMP
Also inhibits adenosine from causing constriction
What are B2 agonists really good at?
What is the mechanism in which B2 agonists are able to cause bronchodilation?
Increase cAMP = relax smooth muscle
Inhibit histamine release from mast cells
What are the respiratory drug families?
Janus Kinase Inibitors
Drugs within family: Beta-2 agonists
Drugs within family: Muscarinic Antagonists
Drugs within family: Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Drugs within family: Corticosteroids
Drugs within family: Leukotrine inhibitors
Drugs within family: JAK inhibitors
Drugs within family: Respiratory stimulants
Drugs within family: 1st gen. antihistamines
Drugs within family: 2nd gen, antihistamines
What are the general characteristics of B2-agonists?
~4 to 6 hours of effect
Which B2 agonist is NOT inhaled but rather oral?
What is Salmeterol used for generally ?
Good for chronic use
What is Salmeterol NOT used for?
To stop attacks, doesn't work for this
What is an adverse affect of Salmeterol?
Down-regulation of beta receptors
What can be given with Salmeterol to stop the down regulation of beta-receptors?
What B2 agonists is thought to have the least amount of side effects?
What type (adminstration wise) of B2 agonist gives the most side effects?
What are side effects of Beta-2 agonist use?
Skeletal muscle tremors
Why are the side effects so few and far between with the muscarinic antagonists used in the respiratory system?
Inhaled - very large compounds so they don't get into the body
What are the muscarinic antagonists used for most commonly?
RAO in horses