Lecture 29: Embryology of Urinary Tract and Adrenals Flashcards Preview

Structures (ASV) > Lecture 29: Embryology of Urinary Tract and Adrenals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 29: Embryology of Urinary Tract and Adrenals Deck (44):
1

kidneys' purpose, location

filter plasma to make urine, at costovertebral angle

2

hilum

ureters/vessels enter kidney

3

urinary system track

kidney > ureter > urinary bladder > urethra > exterior

4

structures of adult kidney

adrenal, cortex, medulla, collecting system, ureter

5

urogenital system comes from what embryonic tissue layer

intermediate mesoderm

6

urogenital ridges

derived from intermediate mesoderm

> nephrogenic cord (urinary) and genital/gonadal ridge (genital)

7

embryological kidney evolution

pronephros > mesonephros > metanephros

8

pronephros location, timing

4th embryonic week, cervical nephrotomes, transitory & nonfunctional

9

mesonephros timing, structures

late in 4th week; nephrotomes > glomeruli, mesonephric tubules, mesonephric ducts; degenerate end of 1st trimester except some adult male derivatives

10

how bowman's capsule created

capillaries meet at end of mesonephric tubules

11

mesonephric tubule shape, function, structures

straight > tortuous
filtration
glomerulus at distal end

12

definitive kidneys

metanephros

13

metanephros timing

week 5: develop
week 9: function
week 12: most amniotic fluid is urine

14

metanephric diverticulum

distal outpouching of metanephric duct = ureteric bud, enters cloaca
> ureters, renal pelvis, calices, collecting tubules (aka collecting system of kidneys)

15

ureteric bud forms

collecting system of ureter

16

blastema is from/forms

metanephric mass of intermediate mesoderm > nephrons

17

reciprocal induction

ureteric bud (metanephric diverticulum) and blastema (metanephric mass of intermediate mesoderm) induce each other's formation

18

ureteric bud branches

1-4: major calices
4-8: minor calices
4 degrees of branching each into collecting ducts

19

nephron components

corpuscle (bowman's capsule, glomerulus), PCT, loop of henle, DCT

20

fetus has all nephrons for adult by when

32 weeks

21

how nephron forms

blastema > nephric vesicle
nephric vesicle elongates, twists, into metanephric tubules
distal end of metanephric tubule invaginates by glomerular capillaries > all structures

22

fetal kidney shape

lobular

23

when glomerular filtration begins

week 9; increases after birth

24

size of adrenal gland in fetal kidney/adult kidney

fetus: same as kidney
adult: smaller than kidney

25

kidney's "movement"

originally in pelvis, next to bladder > caudal portion grows, "ascend" to abdomen until adrenals

26

rotation of kidney hilum

90 degrees medially during "migration" so kidneys face each other

27

blood supply to kidneys over time

common iliacs (early) > renal arteries (adult)

28

urorectal septum made from

intermediate mesoderm that grows into cloaca simultaneous w/ kidney

29

urorectal septum divides

ventral bladder, dorsal rectum

30

urogenital sinus parts

1. vesical-bladder
2. pelvic-urethra
3. phallic-genital tubercle

31

layers of urinary bladder

sphlancnic mesoderm (outer), endoderm (epithelium)

32

trigon of bladder

where ureters enter bladder (proximally), where urethra exits (distally)

33

bladder location (children/adult)

abdominal, pelvic

34

kidney stage ureters are from

metanephros

35

allatois

initially, continuous with bladder's vesicle protion > constricts, becomes urachus (ligament) > median umbilical ligament (vestigial) in adults

36

female urethra derivation

urogenital sinus endoderm, CT/smooth muscle from splanchnic mesoderm

37

male urethra derivation

proximal-urogenital sinus, distal-epithelial ingrowth from penis, CT/smooth muscle from splanchnic mesoderm

38

2 parts of adrenal glands, their derivations

mesoderm > cortex
neural crest cells > medulla

39

adrenal gland fetal cortex in adult (3 layers)

3 layers- zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, zona reticularis

40

hormones medulla produces

epinephrine, norepinephrine - fight/flight

41

hormones cortex produces

zona glomerulosa- mineralocorticoids (salt/fluid regulation)
zona fasiculata- carb, protein, fat, cortisol metabolism (sugar)
zona reticularis- sex steroid precursors (sex)

42

renal agenesis

no blastema > no kidney develops > no amniotic fluid > bilateral renal agenesis, cannot see fetus on U/S, lethal anomaly d/t pulmonary hypoplasia

43

potter sequence

clinical correlate, no blastema > fetal muscles/limbs fixed, face smashed in, feet clubbed

44

"prune belly" syndrome

in males, if no cnxn between endoermal part of urethra-epithelial ingrowth from outside, tissue not obliterated > valve-like structures form, keep urine from coming out > bladder fills til huge > amniotic fluid trapped in, lethal anomaly