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Flashcards in lecture 3 Deck (47):
1

what 7 things does a CBC include

1. PCV
2. Total erythrocyte count
3. hemoglobin concentration
4. erythrocyte indices
5.plasma protein concentration
6. total WBC count
7. blood smear examination

2

what 7 things do you look at for an RBC evaluation

1. number
2. arrangement
3.size
4.color
5.shape
6.inclusion
7.parasitic organisms

3

what is an increase in RBC

polycthyemia

4

what is a decrease in RBC

anemia

5

where do we assess rouleaux on a slide

monolayer

6

what are 4 artifactual causes of rouleaux

poor smear prep, viewing the slide in a thick area, refrigerated blood, old blood sample

7

when is rouleaux formation truly present

when there is an increase in globulins, such as immunogloblins, and fibrinogen

8

what is agglutination

grapelike/clusters of RBCS, can be a case of antibody-mediated anemia

9

what are 3 in clinic tests you can run to determine agglutination is there

1. saline test
2. coombs test
3. red dots from EDTA tubes

10

how do we assess the size of RBCs in a smear

1. micrometer
2. comparsion to a neutophil

11

what is polychromasia

variation in color of RBCs, it is a normal response to anemia except in a HORSE

12

what is hypochromia

increased paleness in a RBC

13

what RBC indices provide RBC color info

MCH and MCHC

14

what are ghost RBCs

they have lost their hemoglobin and only the remaining membranes are seen, they represent hemolysis due to in vivo or in vitro causes

15

what is poikilocytosis

general term for abnormal shape of RBC's for species

16

what should we know about cytauxzoon felis

-protozoal disease affecting cats in south central and sounteastern USA
-transmitted by dermacentor ticks
-primary host is bobcat
-fatal in domestic cats
-intracellular organisms
-appear as signet rings or safety pins

17

what should we know about mycoplasma spp.

-appears as small,short, rounded rods alone or in chains on the sruface of RBCS
-infects dogs, cattle, pigs and camelids
-use Romanowsky-based stains

18

what should we know about anaplasma spp.

numerous small (1 micron) coccoid purple rickettsial organisms usually on the margin of RBC, and smaller than a Howell-Jolly body

19

what are the species of Babesia spp for cats

Babesia felis

20

what are the species of Babesia spp for dogs

Babesia canis and Babesia gibsonii

21

what are the species of Babesia spp for horses

Babesia equi and Babesia cabalii

22

what are the species of Babesia spp for sheep and goat

Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi

23

what are the species of Babesia spp for cattle

Babesia bigemia, Babesia bovis, Babesia major and Babesia divergens

2 main = Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina

24

what should we know about Babesia spp.

-species- specific intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites
-teardrop/pear-shaped
-transmitted by ticks
- can cause hemolytic anemia
-stain with NMB

25

what should we know about distemper virus inclusions

viral inclusions in erythrocytes

26

what are the 5 RBC inclusions with infectious agents

1. distemper virus
2. Babesia spp
3. Anaplasma spp
4. Mycoplasma spp
5. Cytauxzoon felis

27

what is basophilic strippling

-aggreation of ribosomal RNA in RBCS
-occurs in regenerative anemia and lead poisioning

28

what species normally has approx. 5% Heinz bodies in blood in health

cats

29

5+ nucleated RBCs/ 100 WBCs is what

abonrmal

30

an increase in nRBCs

most often seen in dogs, cats and camelids with strong regenerative anemia

31

what is a metarubricyte

most common erythroid precursor seen in blood, not normally seen in healthy animals

32

what are the 5 erythrocyte inclusions

1. nucleated RBCs
2. Howell-Holly bodies
3. Heinz bodies
4. Basophilic strippling
5. Infectious agents

33

what are torocytes

appear to have increased central pallor (an artifact)
-thick rim of hemoglobin

34

what are target cells

- codocytes
-numerous target cells in the blood of a dog with cholestasis (bile is not moving in the bile ducts in the liver)
-may be seen with regenerative anemia, iron deficiency anemia and liver disease

35

what are stomatocytes

-RBCs with an elongated area of central pallor (mouth-like)
-may be artifactual in blood smears that are thick
- inherited disorders in some dog breeds
-occasional stomatocyte is considered non-specific finding in regenerative anemia, liver disease and lead poisioning

36

what are spherocytes

-RBCs shaped like a sphere rather than a discoid shape
- smaller, less than 2/3 the diameter, more dense
-moderate to marked numbers characteristic of immune mediated hemolytic anemia

37

what are eccentrocytes

ragged appear, poorly hemoglobinized fringe of cytoplasm along one side of the RBC
- result from excess oxidant stress to RBCs eg. onion poisioning in dogs + cats, red maple poisioning in horses

38

what are elliptocytes

elongated erythrocytes
-oval shaped RBCs are normal in camelids

39

what are dacrocytes

teardrop cells
-bone marrow disorders of dogs and cats, iron deficiency in ruminants, kidney and splenic disorders of dogs
-artifactual could be a result in vivo mechanical fragmentations, if all tear drop ends are going the same way it may be due to a bad blood smear

40

what are drepanocytes

spindle-shaped/ sickle cells
-normal in certain sheep, goats and deer breeds
-sickle shape is probably due to in vitro exposure of RBCs to atmospheric oxygen

41

what are Schistocytes

RBC fragments less than half the size of a normal RBC
-sharp pointed projections and ragged asymmetrical borders
-cause could be due too intravascular mechanical injury (DIC dogs), iron-deficiency anemia

42

what are keratocytes

blister, bite, apple stem cells
causes include franmentation injury, oxidant injury, liver disease (fatty liver in cats)
-they are an indication of some disease going on

43

what are Acanthocytes

spur cells
-one or more blunt-tipped or club-shaped ends, could be different lengths and widths, could be irregular intervals
,seen in hemangiosarcoma, liver disease, DIC, iron deficiency anemia

44

what are echinocytes

crenation or burr cells
projection on cell membrane include
-sharp or blunt end, uniform size, numerous usually, evenly spaced around the circumference

45

what artifactual causes of echinocytes

old blood (stored)
-too little blood in EDTA tube
-exposure of RBCS to ambient air when preparing blood smears

46

what are real causes of echinocytes

drugs, electrolyte depletion in horses, renal disease in dogs, snake envenomation

47

what are the 12 erythrocyte shapes

1. echinocytes (crenated cells)
2.acanthocytes (spur cells)
3.keratocytes (bite/horn cells)
4. schistocytes (fragments)
5. Drepanocytes (sickle cells)
6.Dacrocytes (tear-drop)
7. Ellipocytes/Ovalocytes
8.Eccentrocytes
9. Spherocutes
10. Stomatocutes (smiley-face)
11. Leptocytes (target cells (codocytes)
12. Torocytes