Lecture 3: Fundamentals of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Fundamentals of Nutrition Deck (49):
1

Why study nutrition?

-Eliminate malnutrition & vitamin/mineral deficiencies

-Heart & vascular disease, metabolic disease, alzheimer's disease

2

Body Mass Index (BMI)

How do you calculate?

Weight/height^2

(kg/m^2)

3

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is the normal/healthy weight BMI?

18.5-24.9

4

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is considered underweight BMI?

Below 18.5

5

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is considered an overweight BMI?

25.0-29.9

6

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is considered Obese Stage 1?

30.0-34.9

7

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is considered Obese Stage 2?

35.0-39.9

8

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What is considered Morbidly Obese?

>40.0

9

Energy Scale for food;

What are the three sources of calories?

-Protein
-Carbs
-Fats

10

Energy Scale for food;

What are the calories per gram for carbohydrates?

4 calories per gram

11

Energy Scale for food;

What are the calories per gram for protein?

4 calories per gram

12

Energy Scale for food;

What are the calories per gram for fat?

9 calories per gram

13

Saturated vs Unsaturated lipids

Saturated: pack closely together

Unsaturated: oils, packed loosely together

14

1 g Nitrogen= ____ protein

6.25g

15

___g Nitrogen = 6.25g protein

1g

16

How is nitrogen excreted?

urinary, fecal, cutaneous

17

What are the Essential Amino Acids?

Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine, histidine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine

18

What are the non-essential amino acids?

Alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine

19

What does BMR stand for?

Basal metabolic rate

20

What does RMR stand for?

Resting metabolic rate

21

What does TEE stand for?

Total energy expenditure

22

What is digested in the duodenum?

-***Fat
-Sugars
-Peptides and amino acids
-***Iron
-***Folate
-Calcium
-Water
-Electrolytes

23

What is digested in the jejunum?

-Sugars
-Peptides and amino acids
-Calcium
-Water
-Electrolytes

24

What is digested in the Ileum?

-Bile acids
-Vitamin B12
-Water
-Electrolytes

25

What are the common vitamins/minerals and ions required in the diet?

Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride

Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Iron Sulfur

26

What are the trace minerals required in the diet?

-Iodine
-Selenium
-Copper
-Zinc

27

What are the lipid-soluble minerals?

-Retinol (A)
-Retinoic acid (A)
-Calcitriol (D)
-Vitamin K
-Vitamin E

28

What are the water soluble minerals?

-Thiamine (B1)
-Riboflavin (B2)
-Niacin (B3)
-Pantothenic acid (B5)
-Pyridoxine (B6)
-Biotin (B7)
-Folic acid (B9)
-Cobalamin (B12)
-Ascorbate (C)

29

Digested products are absorbed into ___________

hepatic portal system

30

Dietary Minerals: Source?

K+

Unprocessed foods (metas, vegetables and fruits, nuts)

31

Dietary Minerals: Source?

Na+

Ubiquitous in foods of animal origin and in dietary salt

32

Dietary Minerals: Source?

Cl-

Ubiquitous in dietary salt

33

Dietary Minerals: Source?

Ca2+

Milk and dairy products, soy beans, dark green vegitables

34

Dietary Minerals: Source?

PO4 3-

Dairy products, wheat germ and bran, beans, walnuts

35

Dietary Minerals: Source?

Mg2+

Meat, fish, vegetables, nuts and grains

36

What is Thiamine aka?

B1

37

What usually causes a Thiamine deficiency?

Alcoholism --> interferes with absorption

38

What are the clinical manifestations of a Thiamine (B1) deficiency?

-Wernicke's : ataxia, nystagmus, opthalmoplegia

-Korsakoff's : psychosis, confabulation

-Dry beriberi: muscle wasting, partial paralysis
-Wet beriberi: cardiac failure, peripheral edema

39

Riboflavin aka?

B2

40

Clinical manifestations of Riboflavin (B2) deficiency?

-Corneal neovascularization
-Cheilosis
-Magenta-colored tongue

41

Niacin aka?

B3

42

Deficiency in Niacin comes from...

Hartnup disease:

impaired aa absorption from intestines and reabsorption in kidneys --> tryptophan deficiency --> niacin deficiency --> malnutrition leads to PELLAGRA

43

What is pellagra?

4Ds: Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis, Death

44

Pantothenic Acid (B5) deficiency comes from...

starvation (VERY RARE)

45

Clinical manifestations in Pantothenic Acid (B5) deficiency?

Dermatitis, numbness, paresthesia, muscle cramps, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency, hypoglycemia

46

Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency clinical manifestations?

Sideroblastic anemia, cheilosis, intertrigo, convulsions

47

Biotin (B7): function?

cofactor for carboxylation enzymes

48

Folic Acid (B9): deficiency from?

-Folate pool quickly depleated in alcoholics and pregnancy (can lead to spina bifida)

49

STOPPED AT SLIDE 37

CHECK TO SEE IF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS WILL BE TESTED!!!