Lecture 3 Resp Failure (FYI missed this lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Resp Failure (FYI missed this lecture) Deck (19):
1

Normal PO2 is ___
Normal CO2 is ____
Normal HCO3 is ____
normal pH is ____

80-100;
35-45;
23-27;
7.35-7.45

2

Respiratory failure is due to either a _____ failure or a _____ failure

lung;
pump

3

Gas exchange failure is manifested by _____; ventilatory failure is manifested by _____ and can be due to 3 reasons

hypoxemia;
hypercapnic (aka hypercarbic)-CNS depression, mechanical defect, fatigue

4

hypoxemic respiratory failure is characterized by ____ less than 60 mm Hg. hypercapnic failure is characterized by ____ > 45 mm Hg and a pH less than ____

Pa O2;

PaCO2, 7.35

5

increased deadspace causes what kind of RF? what about a V/Q mismatch?

hypercapnic/hypercarbemic;

hypoxemic

6

with hypoxic/hypoxemic RF, what happens to PaCO2?

what happens to Pa O2 in ventilatory failure?

no change or decreases;

decreases (not as much as hypoxemic)

7

When V/Q = 0, there is a ____ obstruction. This is also called a ____. Does 100% O2 help?

airway; shunt
no

8

When V/Q = infinity, there is ____ obstruction. This is also called ____. Does 100% O2 help?

blood flow;
physiologic dead space;
yes

9

with diffusion abnormalities, there is an increased distance between ___. the alveolar capillary membrane is _____

alveoli, thickened

10

hypoventilation causes a buildup of ____ in the lung, causing ____ respiratory failure

CO2, hypoxemic

11

acute respiratory failure causes a large drop in ____.. Chornic RF causes a decrease in ____ slightly, but increases _____

pH;
pH, HCO3

12

example of cause of acute RF;

what about chronic RF?

pneumonia,

COPD

13

2 neuromuscular causes of hypercapnic RF:

MS, muscular dystrophy

(Also probably myasthenia gravis)

14

Clinical manifestations of resp failure:
severe ____ headache; late sign is ____; early sign is tachycardia, ____, and mild HTN

morning; cyanosis;

tachypneic

15

hypoxemia and hypoxia causes metabolic ____. there is a ____ in cardiac output and _____ renal function

acidosis;
decrease;
impaired

16

RF clinical manifestations:
____, ____ breathing pattern; sitting ____, and dyspnea. There is also ____ breathing and retractions

rapid, shallow;
upright;

pursed-lip

17

problems of oxygen toxicity:
suppression of _____, leading to increased ___ and narcosis. absorption ____ and premature retrolental ____

ventilation;
CO2;
atelectasia;
fibroplasia

18

Resorption atelectasis (collapse) is due due depletion of blood ____

nitrogen

19

as opposed to natural breathing, mechanical breathing causes _____ inspiratory pressure. Air is ____ into the lungs

positive;
pushed