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Flashcards in lecture 4 Deck (63):
1

when we see toxic neutrophils what does that mean

there is an illness
usually gram -ve bacteria like E.coli

2

what are the 4 changes in order for toxic neutrophils

1. dohle bodies
2. cytoplasmic basophilia
3. cytoplasmic vacolations
4.toxic granulation

3

what are dohle bodies

pale round to linear blue aggregates in the cytoplasm
they can be seen in small numbers (normal) in both immature and mature neutrophils, more so in cats

4

what is cytoplasmic basophilia

blue colored cytoplasm due to retained ribosomes
it is the last toxic change to resolve after a disease (stays the longest)

5

what is cytoplasmic vaculation

-vacuolated cytoplasm, often seen with cytoplasmic basophila, and is a indicator that the disease is more toxic if there are here

6

what is toxic granulation

-distinct red granules in the primary cytoplasm, rarely seen in domestic animals, but more common in large animals

7

what is nuclear hypersegmentation

5 or more lobes in neutrophils, tells us the neutrophil is an old cell, inherited in poodle macrocytosis, and is a cobalt deficiency in cattle if we see these

8

what is nuclear hyposegmenation

bands, metamyelocytes, and myelocytes

9

what is Pelger-huet hyposegmentation

hereditary in dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, cell function is normal
-may be associated with choronic infection

10

what is birman cat neutrophil granulation anomaly

an autosomal recessive disorder of birman cats, the neutrophils have fine eosinophilic to magenta granules, inherited problem

11

what is chediak-higashi syndrome

lysosomal disorder in cats, where neutrophils and eosinophils (possibly lymphocytes) contain large lysosomal granules that are visible on Romanowsky stained blood smears
-affect cats tend to bleed due to platelet problems (inherited problem)

12

what are reactive lymphocytes

seen in peripheral blood, more seen in younger animals who are antigentically naive.

13

what do lymphoblasts usually indicate

lymphoma or leukemia

14

canine distemper virus

leukocyte inclusion in RBC's, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes

15

what are the 2 leukocyte inclusions

Ehrlicia ewingii and Anaplasma phagocytophilium

16

what should we know about Ehrlicia ewingii

infects granulocytes in dogs

17

what should we know about Anaplasma phagocytophilium

infects neutrophils and eosinophils in horses, cats, dogs, camelids, humans
-transmitted by ticks (Ixodes)
-diagnosis Morulae in neutrophils and eosinophils

18

what are smudge cells

basket cells
- degenerative ruptured WBCs, may be an artifact large numbers may be associated with leukemia

19

what is another name for platelets

thrombocytes

20

what does PDW (platelet distribution width) tell us

machine tells us variation in size

21

what is plateletrit

% of platelets in a volume of blood

22

how are total platelet counts done

determined by a blood machine

23

what are giant platelets

megathrombocytes, macroplatelets and shift platelets

24

how big is a shift platelet

alittle larger than a average RBC

25

why do some platelets stain faintly

not alot of granules

26

what are reticulated platelets

young platelets, bigger than average size platelet

27

what is platelet clumping

common in animals, more prone in horses and cats

28

what would you do if platelet count from the machine is low

blood smear

29

what is thrombocytopenia

rock the tube gently to look for clots

30

what are platelet fragments

microplatelets (<1.0um in diameter), afrtifact after storage and aging in EDTA for more than 24 hours
-seen in iron-deficiency anemia, and IM thrombocytopenia

31

what is mean platelet volume (MPV)

same as MCV (size) and measured in fl (femtolitres)

32

what are platelet inclusions

anaplasma platys
-cause of cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs
-morulae (purple) seen in platelets

33

what is hemostatis

arrest of bleeding physiologically (vasocontriction or coagulation) or surgically

34

what are the 3 stages of hemostatis

primary, secondary and tertiary

35

what is primary hemostasis

formation of the platelet plug

36

what is secondary hemostasis

formation of fibrin through the coagulation cascade

37

what is tertiary hemostasis

formation of plasmin for degradation of the clot

38

what are the 3 pathways in the coagulation cascade

intrinsic, extrinsic, common pathways

39

what is mechanical hemostasis

platelet aggregation and adhesion to injure vascular endothelium

40

what is phosphatidylserine important for in hemostasis

its on the surface of activated platelets,
platelets release microparticles that contain it

41

what is essential for collection of blood for hemostasis

clean 1st venipuntice

42

which tube do you want to use for coagulation asssays

trisodium citrate, should be mixed quickly to avoid clotting

43

how much blood to anticoagulant for trisodium citrate

1 part citrate to 9 parts blood
1:9 ratio

44

what should we know about sample handling for hemostasis

-samples sent out ASAP
- centrifuge sample (2000 RPM for 10 ot 15 min) ASAP

45

what are the 3 inclinic tests for hemostasis

platelet estimate, buccal mucosal bleeding time, activated clotting time

46

which tests are poor for testing for hemostasis

clot retraction test, and WBCT ( whole blood clotting time)

47

which test is sesitive to vitamin k deficiency

prothrombin time

48

what is the protein induced vitamin k absence test

-its needed to activate certain factors, it may be prolonged within 6 hours of ingestion of anticoagulant rodenticiced

49

what is RIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

- multiple small clots usually after a severe injury

50

what is Von Willebrand's disease

-most common of inherited bleeding disorders in dogs
there are 3 types
-genetic test to identify affected dogs

51

what are the clinical signs of vitamin K deficiency

-bruising of skin, bleeding in GI tract, blood in urine + diarrhea + vomit, nosebleeds

52

what is leukemia

term used for the presence of neoplastic cells in blood

53

what are the 2 classes of neoplastic disorders of hematopoiessi

lymphoproliferative
myeloproliferative

54

what are hematopoetic disorders

abnormalities in the bone marrow classiffied according to changes in cell numbers, morphogical features and cell maturation

55

anemia is decrease below normal in

number of RBC
PCV
hemoglobin concentration

56

what is macrocytic anemia

most common is regenerative anemia

57

what is microcytic anemia

most common is iron deficiency due to chronic blood loss (adults) or nutritional deficiency (young animals)

58

what finding would be included for bone marrow response: regenerative anemia

1.polychromasia
2.reticulocytosis with anisocytosis and increase RDW
3.Macrocytosis with hypochromasia
4.Basophilic strippling in ruminants
5. increase number of nRBC's and Howell-Jolly bodies

59

which animal is regenerative anemia response greatest in

birds

60

what are causes of regenerative anemia

hemolysis and hemorrhage

61

what should we know about non-regenerative anemia

-lack of time - takes 2 to 4 days or sometimes 7 for bone marrow to respond
-lack of BM response in renal failure, iron deficiency, aplastic anemia, anemia of inflammatory disease, endocrine disorders

62

what is hemolytic anemia due too

immune mediated, RBC parasites, bacterial and viral agents, toxins

63

what is iron deficiency due too

chronic blood loss or nutritional deficiency