Lecture 4 - Aerobic Testing Flashcards Preview

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aerobic fitness

- considered one of the most important determinants of health
- represents ability to perform dynamic exercise involving large muscle groups for longer periods
- indicates ability to sustain physical effort over a period of time


what is VO2 max

maximal volume of O2 one can consume during exhaustive exercise


2 things VO2 depends on

1. transport of Oxygen via CR system to working muscles
2. ability of muscle to utilize oxygen during exercise


equation for VO2

(HRxSv)x(a-vO2 diff)
(delivery) (extraction by muscle)


what does a direct test measure

actual construct of interest
- components: O2, CO2, VE (can be submax or max)


what does an indirect test measure

measures construct known to be related (predictive) to actual construct of interest


examples of direct measurement

VO2 max (treadmill, ergometer - cycle, arm, rower)


examples of indirect measurement

- step test (mCAFT)
- queens
- YMCA cycle test
- astrand cycle test
- ebbeling treadmill test
- 1.5 mile run
- 20MSR
- bruce treadmill test


protocols for tests

see notes on paper


HR recording in submax tests

- record HR at end of each minute
- must achieve steady state (within 5bpm over subsequent readings) over duration of test/ stage


single stage models

- use one submax workload to predict VO2 max
- typically 4-6 min


multistage model

- use two or more submax workloads
- typically 3 min per stage


absolute VO2 max

- directly related to body size
- L/min or mL/min


relative VO2 max

- compare CR fitness regardless of body size
- mL/kg*min


submax fitness end criteria

- target HR obtained
- cannot maintain cadence or workload
- client asks to stop
- signs of physiologial stress


submax test - active recovery protocol

- low intensity aerobic cool down for 3 min
- measure HR at end of each min
- extend if not recovered
- seat client and measure 1 and 3 min HR and BP


max test - active recovery protocol

- low intensity aerobic cool down for min 5 min
- measure HR at end of each min
- supervise client for a min of 15 min upon cool down completion


what are the assumptions between PO, VO2 and HR

all linear (all increase together)


4 assumptions of indirect tests

1. SS HR is obtained for each work rate (within 5 bpm for subsequent readings) - can vary +/-20bpm
2. max HR for given age is uniform
3. linear relationship between HR, VO2, PO (sleep caffeine alcohol)
4. mechanical efficiency (VO2 @ given work rate) is same for everyone


direct measurement test selection

- consider specifcity to sport of client
- cycle ergometer: often yeilds lower max values, local muscle fatigue but more safety
- treadmil: yields higher max values, more familiar, less safe, bad for medical conditions


regulating workload

- O2 consumption increases linearly with workload
- on treadmill, workload changes by manipulating speed and elevation (manipulate load on cycle ergometer)


power output on cycle ergometer - equation

power = work (fxd)/ time


direct test measurement system

- lab based using open-circuit spirometry
- gas colelction system (valves, tubing, stopcocks, collection of gas, co2 and o2 analyzers)


RER ratio

VCo2/Vo2 (can be influenced by hyperventilating)


direct tests - gold standard

- graded exercise tests
- duration: 8-12 min
- begin at submax workload and provide gradual systematic increases to point of volitional fatigue


why is a direct measure only supposed to be 8-12 min

- balance bet preventing exhaustion anaer. before reaching max and exhausting muscles due to length
- avoid vasodilation
- avoid lactic acid built up


end criteria of direct max test

- HR: fails to increase or close to age predicted max
- blood lactate (>8mmol/L)
- RER >=1.15
- volitional fatigue
- plateau


immediately terminate test if...

- volitional fatigue
- mental confusion
- cyanosis or pallor
- BP does not increase or suddenly drops
- SBP >= 250
- DBP >=120


anaerobic threshold

- level of O2 consumption at which there is a rapid and systematic increase in Blood lactate or non-linear increase in ventilation (RER~ 1.0)


VO2 max

- power test
- measures rate of O2 uptake during max exercise
- rate = power
- defined as functional ability of CR system
- most valid measure of functional ability of CR system --> criterion (gold standard) measure of CR fitness


5 types of different tests

1. direct vs indirect
2. absolute vs relative
3. max vs submax
4. peak vs max
5. power vs capacity