Lecture 4 - Diaphragm; Mechanisms of breathing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 - Diaphragm; Mechanisms of breathing Deck (23):
1

Which Dome of the diaphragm is higher and why?

Right dome is higher

heart pushes the left dome lower

2

The diapgram is a thin sheet of muscle that lines the entire thoracic cavity - has a central tendon

What does contraction lead to?

tendon moving downwards

3

What are the attachements of the diaphragm:

Anteriorly: xiphoid process

Posteriorly: bumps into psoas major and qadratus lumborium (doesn't reach posterior wall)

Costal Margin:Inferior six ribs and costal cartilages

Lumbar vertebrae: L1-3/4 via Right crus and L1-2/3 via left crus)

note: crus = legs

4

Where is the median arcuate ligaemnt/

Right in the mid-line forms over the top of the descending aorta

5

The medial arcuate lig. is ov ver which muscle?

Psoas major

6

The lateral arcuate lig. is over which muscle?

Quadratus lumborum

7

What are the structures that pierce the diaphragm and where do they do so?

IVC - T8 (slightly to the right)

Oesophagus - T10 (midline posterior)

Aorta - T12

Right phrenic n.: through central tendon

Left phrenic: anterolateral (through muscle)

Azygous Vein: Right

Hemiazygous vein: Left

Sympathetic trunk: Lateral to the cura

8

The aorta passes behind the _____ _______ _______at T12

mnedian arcuate ligament

9

As diaphragm pushses downwards it _____pressure in the abdominal cavity

increases

blood then wants to move to the lower pressure area = thoracic cavity

10

When the D contracts it pulls ____ __ ___ ____ and closes off the ______, stopping the contents of the _____ going up like the blood does

When the D contracts it pulls the left and right crus and closes off the oesophagus, stopping the contents of the stomach going up like the blood does

11

what innervates motor, sensory to central part and sensory to pericardium of diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve.

C 3,4,5 - keeps the diaphragm alive

12

Where is pain from central diaphragm referred?

Dermatomes over the neck and upper limb (C3,4,5)

13

The very lateral part of the diaphragm receives sensory supply from ...

the lower intercostal nerve

Pain here will be referred to the lower thoracic spinal segments

14

movement of air in and out of lungs is..

passive

created by pressure gradient by change in dimensions

15

The lungs have to move in whatever direction the thoracic wall moves because of...

the surface tension produced by the pleura

16

True or False

The parietal pleura is firmed attached to the thoracic cage, including the diaphragm

True

17

The diaphragm expands the lungs by...

pulling down on them

18

The diaphragm is the main determinant of _____ respiration

Silent respiration

19

If you elevate the upper ribs, (external intercostals) - you increase the _______ direction of the cage

anteroposterior

20

Elevation of lower ribs cause a increase in the _______ dimension

Elevation of lower ribs cause a increase in the transverse dimension

21

What are the accessory respiratory muscles?

Scalene muscles - for sniffing

external intercostals - expanding

Internal intercostals - collapsing

22

The _______ muscles tense in forced expiration to force abdominal contents up to push the diaphragm up and reduce thoracic cavity

The adbominal muscles tense in forced expiration to force abdominal contents up to push the diaphragm up and reduce thoracic cavity

23

serratus anterior does what?

protracts scapula