Lecture 4- Embryology and Puberty Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4- Embryology and Puberty Deck (46):
1

What is the most common type of bony pelvis?

Gynecoid (round)

2

Where do the majority of structures from the GU tract come from?

Mesoderm (middle layer)

3

During what week do the urogenital ridges form from the mesoderm?

4th week

4

What do the urogenital ridges form?

Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper portion of the vagina

5

What do the external genitalia develop from?

Genital swellings in the pelvic region

6

By what week are gonads structurally male or female?

7 weeks

7

What are the two pairs of genital ducts?

Mesonephric (wolffian)
Paramesonephric (mullerian)

8

In the female, which ducts form the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper 1/3 of the vagina?

Paramesonephric (mullerian)

9

What structure forms the lower portion of the vagina?

Vaginal plate

10

What forms the vaginal plate?

Paramesonephric (mullerian) ducts merge with the urogenital sinus

11

What is formed from the caudal end of the hindgut?

Cloaca

12

In females, what forms into the clitoris, the unfused urogenital folds from the labia minora and the labioscrotal swellings.

Genital tubercles

13

These all make up what:
labia majora, labia minora, mons pubis, clitoris, vestibule and the ducts of the Skene and Bartholin glands which open into the vestibule.

The vulva

14

What is the the area between the thighs and the buttocks extending from the coccyx to the pubis.

Perineum

15

What type cells line the vagina?

stratified squamous epithelium

16

What is visible inside the vagina?

External cervical os

17

Which ligament contains the arteries, veins, and ureters?

Broad ligament

18

Where is the area where the fallopian (uterine) tubes enter?

Cornu

19

what are the three layers of the uterus?

Inner- endometrium (what sheds)
Middle- myometrium
Outer- Perimetrium

20

What are the three portions of the fallopian tubes?

Isthmus
Ampulla
Infundibulum (have fimbriae)

21

In fallopian tubes, epithelial lining is _______ to facilitate transport.

ciliated

22

With Mullerian ageneisis, there is an absence of what?

Uterus, can also have vaginal abnormalities

23

What occurs when inferior parts of the mullerian ducts do not fuse?

Double uterus, uterine didelphys.
Double or single vagina

24

Reminants of the menophric ducts may persist and manifest as what?

Gartner cysts- located along vaginal wall or within broad ligament

25

When do adrenarchy occur?

At approximately 6-8 years of age.

26

What is the word for breast development?

Thelarchy

27

What is the sequence of puberty?

Growth acceleration
Thelarchy
Pubarche
Menarche and ovulation

28

What is the onset of sexual characteristics prior to age 6 in African-Americans and age 7 in Caucasians.

Precocious puberty

29

What are some causes of GnRH dependent precocious puberty?

Idiopathic
CNS infection/ inflammation
CNS injury

30

What are some GnRH independent causes of precocious puberty?

Exogenous sex steroids administration
Primary hypothyroidism
Ovarian tumors
Simple Ovarian cyst
McCune- Albright Syndrome

31

What is the most common cause of delayed puberty with an elevated FSH?

Turner Syndrome

32

When FSH + LH is <10 what type of delayed puberty is indicated?

Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

33

What is the most common cause of delayed puberty?

Constitutional Delay

34

What is a syndrome with no GnRH secretion?

Kallman Syndrome

35

What is the most common tumor associated with delayed puberty?

Craniopharyngioma

36

What are 3 anatomic causes of abnormal pubertal development?

Mullerian agenesis
Imperforate hymen
Transverse vaginal septum

37

What is where menstruation occurs at the normal time but blood can't exit due to obstruction.

Hematocolpos

38

Which ducts develop into the male epididymis, ductus defrens and ejaculatory ducts?

Mesonephric ducts

39

WHich ducts disappear in the female embryo?

Mesonephric ducts

40

What ducts form the fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper portions of the vagina?

Paramesonephric ducts

41

What gives rise to the lower parts of the vagina?

The vaginal plate

42

What is the cervical opening to the vagina?

External os

43

What is congenital absence of the ovaries and what syndrome is it common in?

Ovarian dysgensis; Turner syndrome

44

What is the term for a double uterus?

Usterus didelphys

45

What type uterus results when lack of fusion is limited to the superior portion of the uterine body?

Bicornuate uterus

46

What cause a Garner duct cyst?

Reminants of the mesonephric ducts