The MOA of a drug and how the Drug affects the body is known as?
A drug which resides in an inactive form (as manufactured) and when administered is transformed (metabolized) into an active compound (capable of inducing pharmacological effect) is known as what?
What 3 criteria are used for Pharmaceutical equivalence?
1) Same active ingredients
2) Same dosage form/route of administration
3) Same strength/concentration of active ingredient
*And meet the same standards for quality/purity
A field of study of the appropriate use of medications to effectively treat or prevent disease and manage symptoms, using evidence-based medicine, is known as?
What is the definition of Pharmaceutical alternatives?
i.e., what is the same and what is different
Same active drug but different salts/complexes, or different dosage forms or strengths
What is Bioequivalence and the % range?
- Similar rate and extent of absorption
- 80-125% of reference product
What is the criteria for a drug to be considered therapeutically equivalent?
i.e., what 2 types of equivalence and also must have the same what?
- Must be pharmaceutically-equivalent and bio-equivalent AND expected to have the same:
1) Therapeutic (clinical) effect
2) Safety profile
What are the 3 pregnancy risk categories for drugs used by the FDA?
1) Pregnancy (includes labor and delivery)
2) Lactation (includes nursing mothers)
3) Females and Males of Reproductive potential
What are the 2 categories of legend drugs (prescription required)?
1) Non-scheduled/Non-controlled: NO abuse potential
2) Scheduled/controlled (C-I thru C-V): based on abuse potential
How does the number designation C-I thru C-V related to the abuse potential of scheduled drugs?
Lower risk of abuse the higher the number (i.e., C-IV or C-V)
The numeric designation of scheduled drugs has an impact on what 3 things?
- Dispense quantitiy
- Refills allowed
- Prescriptions' life-span
What is q.h.s?
Every night at bedtime
What is a.c. vs. p.c.?
- a.c. = before meals
- p.c. = after meals
Differentiate o.d., o.s., and o.u. for administration of drugs for the eye.
- o.d. = right eye
- o.s. = left eye
- o.u. = both eyes
Differentiate a.d., a.s., and a.u. for administration of drugs for the ears.
- a.d. = right ear
- a.s. = left ear
- a.u. = both ears
What is gtt?
What is ut. dict. (u.d.)?
What is t.r.a.?
To run at
What is k.v.a.?
Keep vein open (a "slow" infusion rate)
What does D5W/D10W/D50W refer to?
- "x"% dextrose in water
- D5W = 5% dextrose in water = 5 grams in 100 mL
If you give 25cc of D50W how many grams of dextrose were given?
*25cc = 25 mL and there are 50g of dextrose per 100 mL