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Flashcards in lecture 5 Deck (39):
1

what is the purpose of collection tissue samples for eval?

assess tumours and fluids

2

what are the pros of being able to do cytology in the clinic

faster results

3

what are the cons of being able to do cytology in the clinic

different to determine malignant or benign.

4

how are cells obtained

exfoliation and artificially

5

cytological interpretation can be used too

diagnose. identify disease process, aid in prognosis, aid id determining next steps

6

what are the advantages of cytology

minimal equipment required
rapid turn around time
minimally invasive usually

7

what is histopathology

biopsy thats sent away for further anaylsis

8

why are cytological smears difficult to evaluate

many different cell types as well as cell debris and contaminants

9

what do we evaluate to tell if its a good smear

enough cells in tact and stained properly? inflammatory cell numbers? tissue types?

10

what are inflammatory cells

they can help indicate certain diseases

11

what types of infectious agents would be included in the search

bacteria/ yeast

12

what are the 5 inflammatory cells

neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells. eosinophils

13

what should we know about neutrophils in cytology

may have nuclear changes related to aging or degeneration
-ragged lighter, look more like bands, loss of nuclear membrane
-if lots in the sample look for bacteria

14

what are hypersegmented nuclei and what do they eventually become

aging neutrophils that become pyknotic and that nucleus then may go under karyorrhexis

15

what is karyolysis

loss of nuclear membrane. represents more severe degenerative change and rapid cell death

16

what is the hallmark of degeneration in neutrophils

swollen, ragged nucleus, light eosinophilic color, may look like a large band

17

what must you search for if you see neutrophils with degenerative changes

bacteria

18

what should we know about macrophages in cytology

-derived from peripheral blood monocytes, very large with a round nucleus, with vacuoles, may have eaten bacteria or cells
-may become mutlinucleated or form giant cells, seen in long-standing inflammation

19

where are some places that have fixed macrophages

Kupffer cells in the liver
Alveolar macrophages in the lungs

20

what are reactive lymphocutes

antigenically stimulated

21

what do mott cells look like

plasma cells with clear vacuoles called Russell bodies

22

what are the 4 factors of inflammation

purulent/suppurative
pyogranulomatous
granulomatous
eosinophilic

23

what is purulent inflammation

>85% of inflammatory cells are neutrophils
1. septic/ non-septic
2. degenerative (nuclear changes)/ non-degenerative

24

what is pyogranulomatous inflmmation

>15% macrophages and many neutrophils

25

what is granulomatous inflmmation

>15% macrophages and few neutrophils

26

what is a multinucleated giant cell

macrophages

27

what is eosinophilic inflammation

>10% eosinophils

28

tissue cells may be classified into 3 categories what are they

epithelial cell
mesenchymal cells
discrete cells or round cells

29

what are mesenchymal cells

form connective tissue, blood vessels and lymphatics, spindle cells

30

what should we know about neoplasia

usually a homogenous population of cells
benign: homogeneous population of same cell type with no malignant characteristics
Malignant: changes in cytoplasm and nuclei

31

what are 6 epithelial cell tumors

referred to ask carcinoma or adenocarcinoma
1. papillomas
2. squamous cell carcinoma
3.basal cell tumor
4. sebaceous gland tumour
5. sweat gland turmour
6. perianal tumour

32

what are mesenchymal cell tumours

spindle cell tumours
spindle-shaped cells with cytoplasmic tail
1. lipoma
2.hemangiopericytoma
3.fibrosarcoma
4.hemangiosarcoma

33

what are 6 types of round cell tumours

1.histiocytoma
2.lymphoma
3.mast cell tumour
4. plasma cell tumour
5. transmissible venereal tumour
6. melanoma

34

what 3 things do we look at for lesions cytological evaluations

infectious agents - stain with romanowsky -type stain
non-infectious agents - yeasts, dimorphic fungi, dermatophytes
neoplasia (leishmania spp.)

35

what is eosinophilic granuloma complex

rodent ulcer
eosinophilic plaque
linear granuloma

36

what should we know about fluid filled lesions hematoma

non-dengerate neutphils, TP 2.5g/dl+, no platelets if more than 1 -2 hours old

37

what should we know about fluid filled lesions seroma/hygroma

low cells, TP (>2.5 g/dl), mononuclear cells, few non-degenerate neutrophils

38

what should we know about fluid filled lesions abscesss

90% neutrophils

39

what is the cytology of mammary gland tissues

predominant cells in milk are the foam cells
mastitis = steptococcus and staph. spp are seen