Lecture 5: Fruits & Vegetables Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5: Fruits & Vegetables Deck (36):
1

What does it mean to say "plants are autotrophs"?

-Self-nourished
-Fix carbon
-Make their own energy through photosynthesis

2

What does it mean to say "animals and fungi are heterotrophs"?

-"Other-nourished"
-Need to get eat carbon b/c they can't fix it themselves like autotrophs can

3

How do plants carry out photosynthesis?

-Plants have green pigments called chlorophyll in their chloroplasts
-Chlorophyll captures energy from sunlight and converts it into glucose and oxygen
(CO2 + H2O + light --> glucose + O2)

4

Glucose cycle

Basically, after photosynthesis has occurred in plants, we consume their fruit (contains glucose) while expelling energy (ATP) and carbon dioxide

5

Cultivation

Planting, tending, improving, harvesting of crops/plants for human consumption and pleasure
-collecting seeds
-preparing the ground
-watering
-pruning

6

What are the dictionary, botanical, and culinary definitions of fruit?

-Dictionary = edible product of plant or tree, consisting of seed and its envelope (juicy, pulpy)
-Botanical = portions of a plant that house seeds (ovaries)
-Culinary = generally eaten alone or as a dessert

7

Pericarp

-Outer wrapping around seed
-Composed of endocarp, mesocarp, exocarp
-Can characterize fruits based on their pericarp (thick or thin components)

8

Fleshy fruits

All or most of the pericarp (ovary wall) is soft or fleshy at maturity
-berries, hesperidium, pepo, drupes, pomes

9

Dry fruits

Pericarp splits open along definite seams
-legumes, nuts

10

Berries

-Entire pericarp is fleshy
-May be one or many seeds
-Tomato, grape, blueberry, avocado

11

Hesperidium

-Berries with a leathery rind and parchment-like partitions between sections (endocarp)
-Citrus (orange, lemons, limes)

12

Pepo

-Berry with a hard, thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy mesocarp
-Pumpkin, cucumber, squash

13

Drupes

-Thin exocarp that's flexible or dry and almost leathery
-Fleshy mesocarp with hard inner layer surrounding the seed
-Has one seed
-Endocarp = stone
-Apricot, cherries, peaches, mango, pistachios

14

Coconut as an example of a dry drupe

-Waterproof exocarp
-Thick, buoyant, fibrous husk (mesocarp)
-Hard, woody endocarp that surrounds seed
-Seed embryo is embedded in the coconut meat (endosperm)
-Coconut milk = liquid endosperm

15

Nuts

-A dry fruit with one large seed and a very hard pericarp
-Drupes in which we eat the seed inside the pit instead of the fruit
-Walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts

16

Pomes

-Fruits that have several small seeds
-Seeds surrounded by core (pericarp)
-Core surrounded by thick, edible hypanthium layer
-Apples, pears

17

Legumes

-A dry fruit with a pericarp that splits open along a seam
-Beans, soy beans, peanuts

18

Vegetable

-Generally eaten with the main course of a meal
-Classified according to the part of the plant from which it is derived (leaf, stem, root, flowering, bulbs)
-Botanical fruits such as cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, and legumes such as green beans and peas are also considered veggies from a culinary standpoint

19

Name the main quality attributes of fruits and veggies?

-Nutrition
-Color
-Taste
-Texture

20

Nutrition as a quality attribute for fruits and veggies

-Macronutrients (carbs, lipids, proteins)
-Fiber
-Micronutrients (vitamins, minerals)

21

USDA guidelines for fruits and veggies

-USDA recommends 2.5 cups of fruits and veggies per day
-Recommends to eat a variety (different colors)

22

Difference between variety and cultivar?

-Variety = appearance distinct from other varieties, but will hybridize freely with other varieties (bell pepper, jalapeño pepper)
-Cultivar = aka cultivated variety distinct from other cultivars, and must be possible to propagate (Excaliber bell pepper, Cal Wonder bell pepper)

23

Significance of cultivars

-Varieties cultivated for a specific purpose
-Some have higher levels of certain nutrients than others
-Cultivars nowadays focus on disease resistance, shelf life, appearance, and taste

24

Color as a quality attribute for fruits and veggies

-Acceptability of a food is often based solely on its color
-Different colors provide different phytonutrients
-Colors are the result of different pigment molecules each with different biological activity

25

Name the classes of pigments found in plants

-Lipid soluble (chlorophylls, carotenoids)
-Water soluble (anthocyanins, betalins)

26

Chlorophylls

-Fat soluble, green pigment with Mg atom bound to center
-During heating, the Mg gets replaced by H+ ions and turns an olive color
-If Mg is replaced by copper ions then it turns bright green

27

Carotenoids

Family of fat-soluble plant pigments that give yellow, orange and red colors to tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit, apricots, bell peppers, egg yolk, milk fat, etc.

28

Lycopene

-Red pigment
-Main pigment in tomatoes and watermelon
-Thought to be protective in prostate cancer

29

Beta carotene

-Found in most greens as well as carrots (orange pigment)
-Vitamin A pre-cursor
-Often added to foods as a colorant, a vitamin A source or as an antioxidant to keep foods from going rancid

30

Anthocyanins

-Water soluble pigments located in the vacuole
-Give red, purple, and blue colors to berries, red grapes, apples, red cabbage, radishes, eggplant
-Change their color with pH

31

Betalains

-Found primarily in red beet root
-Can produce beeturia (pink/red urine due to the excretion of beet pigment after eating beets)

32

Taste as a quality attribute for fruits and veggies

-Taste = chemical sense perceived by specialized receptor cells that make up taste buds (sweet, salty, bitter, umami, sour)

33

Flavor

-Flavor = fusion of multiple senses (taste, aroma, irritation, etc.)
-To perceive flavor, the brain interprets gustatory (taste) stimuli and olfactory (smell) stimuli

34

Texture as a quality attribute of fruits and veggies

Depends upon:
-Turgor = rigidity of plant cells resulting from being filled with water
-Freezing can cause damage to cell membranes
-Thickness of cell wall
-Pectin (gels) and starch

35

Controlled atmosphere storage

-Storage method in which oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen concentrations are regulated
-Lengthens storage life by retarding ripening and decay, preventing disorders, and maintaining texture

36

Optimum storage conditions for fruits and veggies

-Low temp
-Low oxygen
-High relative humidity
-High carbon dioxide
-Low light