Lecture #5 -- Reproductive Physiology Flashcards Preview

Physio -- Endocrine > Lecture #5 -- Reproductive Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture #5 -- Reproductive Physiology Deck (62):
1

Functions of the Reproductive System

Produce Sex Hormones
Produce and Deliver Gametes

2

Chemical structure of protestin, corticoids?

21-carbon pregnane

3

Chemical structure of androgen?

19-carbon andrane

4

Chemical structure of Estrogens?

18-C Estrane

5

Why doesn't the ovary make gluco and mineralo corticoids?

No 21- or 11- beta hydroxylases

6

Difference between delta 4 and delta 5 pathways?

Delta 4 -- 17-OH progesterone
Delta 5 -- DHEA

7

Where do the delta 4 and delta 5 pathways come back together

Androstenedione

8

What is an estrogen?

A substance capable of producing the typical changes of estrus

9

What are the typical changes of estrus (3)

Enlargement of the uterus
Cornification of the vaginal epithelium
Mating behavior in immature females

10

Effect of estrogen on cervix?

Increase in quantity and decrease in viscosity of mucus

11

Effect of estrogens on vagina?

Thickened epithelium

12

Effect of estrogen on bone?

Promotes linear growth and epiphyseal closure

13

Actions of progesterone?

1. Conversion of proliferative to secretory endometrium
2. Inhibition of smooth musc. contractility.
3. Natiuresis w/ elevated Resp. Rate
4. Increased Cervical mucus viscosity
5. breast growth

14

What converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone?

5 alpha reductase

15

Different developmental roles of testosterone and DHT?

Test. -- Epid., Vas, Sem vesicle
DHT -- External Genetalia

16

DHT deficiency causes

male pseudohermaphroditism

17

How are androgens turns into estrogens?

Aromatase present in granulosa cells and adipose

18

Relationship of Sex Binding Globulin to....
Weight
Insulin
Androgens

Inversely related to weight, insulin, and androgens

19

Hormonally, what triggers the onset of puberty?

Decreasing sensitivity of hormonal feedback too

20

How is puberty repressed in early years?

CNS inhibits GnRH release
Very sensitive negative feedback

21

Normal age for Thelarche (breast dev)

8-13

22

Normal age for pubarche?

10.5

23

Normal age for Menarche

12.8

24

Its abnormal is women don't start puberty by...

17

25

Male puberty follows female by approx

1-2 years

26

Difference between precocious pseudopuberty and precocious puberty

Prec. PseudoPub -- Early 2dary sex char., no gametes
Prec. Pub -- Above, but w/ gametes

27

Relationship of teste to body temp

testes are 3 degrees cooler

28

Action of LH on testicle?

Activated Cholesterol Desmolase
Initiates Testosterone synthesis

29

Action of FSH on testicle?

Acts on Sertoli/Sustentacular cells
Stim synthesis of androgen binding proteins, spermatogenesis

30

GnRH pulese happen how frequently?

8-14 times per day

31

Role of Sertoli cells?

Provide nourishment to developing spermatozoa
Intercellular junctions fo BTB

32

Genetic difference between spermatogonium and spermatozoa?

Spermatogonium -- 2n
Spermatozoa (1n)

33

Where does spermiogenesis take place? How long does it take?

Membrane recesses of the Sertoli Cells in the seminiferous tubules
74 days

34

Enzyme present in acrosome for spermatozoa penetration of ovum

Hyaluronidase

35

4 Jobs for the Epididymus

Sperm Maturation
Sperm Storage
Decapacitation
Immune Protection

36

Energy source for spermatozoa?

Fructose

37

Normal Sperm Count?
Problem Sperm Count?

Normal -- 40 - 100 million/mL
Not problematic till below 20 million/mL

38

Normal sperm motility?

50%

39

Difference between Ejaculation, Emission, and Expulsion?

Ejac. -- Forceful ejection of sperm from the urethra
Emission -- Entry of ejacultory fluid into urethra
Expuls. -- Ejection of fluid from urethra and bulbo

40

Describe a primary follicle

Oocyte arrested in prophase of meiosis
Surrounded by a single later of granulosa cells

41

Influence of LH on egg

LH acts on theca cells
Use the delta-4 path to make androgens for the granulosa cells

42

Influence of FSH on egg?

FSH induces aromatase, leading to estrogen production

43

Cause of the LH surge.

Caused by positive feedback of estradiol on Ant P

44

Result of the LH surge?

Local prostaglandins and proteases weaken follicular wall
Resumption of Meiosis
Leutinization

45

What pathway becomes active in the Luteal phase? Why?

Dela-5 pathway
Production of Progesterone

46

Progesterone peaks at ____ days after ovulation

8

47

Luteal phase length =

14 days

48

Significance of HCG?

Homolog of LH
Maintains the Corpus Luteum in early pregnancy

49

How does oral contraception work?

Combination of estrogen and progesterone
Suppresses HPA, presenting the stimulation needed for endometrial development

50

Who makes inhibin? Why?

Produced by luteinized granulosa cells
- feedback on AP FSH release

51

What is the most sensitive marker of ovarian follicular reserve?

Inhibin
(anti-Mullerian hormone)

52

Describe the proliferative phase of the uterus

Rebuilding the endometrial layer following its previous shedding
Late phase -- thickened from grandular hyperplasia, stromal edema

53

Most important hormone of proliferative phase?

Estrogen

54

Describe the secretory phase of the uterus

Cessation of mitosis
Glandular secretions and tortuosity
Coiling of spiral arteries leads to ischemia

55

Two forces to get sperm to the endocervix

Flagellar Activity
Female genital tract contractions

56

What happens in the acrosomal reaction?

Sperm releases hyaluronidase and other enzymes to break through zona pellucida

Inner acrosomal membrane fuses with it

57

Where does fertilization usually occur?

Ampullary tube

58

What is superfecundation?

Fertilization by two partners in one ovulatory cycle.

59

Four categories of causes of infertility

Ovulatory Dysfunction
Tubal factor
Male Factor
Unexplained

60

What might be throught of an an unexplained cause of infertility.

Hostile cervical mucus
Endometriosis
Sperm/Egg interaction
Endometrial Receptivity

61

What happens in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Ovulatory dysfunction with hyperandrogenism
High Androgens inhibit selection of dominant follicle

62

What is polycystic ovarian syndrome associated with?

Insulin Resistance