Flashcards in Lecture 5 Thinking Religion in the Modern World Deck (80):
What are the 3 complications of fides quaerens intellectum?
1. christian reformation movements
2. new science / nova scientia
3. impoverishment of traditional philosophical speculation on divine matters
christian reformation movements were critical of the use of what?
of philosophy in discussions of God and creation
Who mocked Aristotle and favored experience, and then subordinating everything to the gospel
what are the oppositions between philosophy and the gospel
1. sinful nature of man
2. impotence of philosophy
3. God would teach his truth by inspiration to all
Why did Martin luther and john calvin become critical of philo of religion?
1. you subject faith to reason (w/c is corrupted)
2. When dealing w/ beliefs, you have to belive FIDEISM
What is Fideism?
-faith is independent of reason
- our reason is incapable of describing our faith
-our faith can only be attained by INSPIRATION
luther and calvin say that the only way to learn about god is by?
Who founded Nova Scientia?
Francis Bacon's Novum Organum
Faith grounded on scriptires said that the earth is the center of the universe
condemnation of galileo
science found tha tmost of the results go against religious reason
How is traditional philosophical speculation on divine matters impoverished?
-tendency to legislate upon doctrines and dont think of the divine
-theology was reduced to cannon law
What does Ens Realissimum mean
God of the philosophers
Modern thinkers affirmed the existence of God
Religion of john locke and george berkeley
nicolas malebrance, antoine arnauld, blaise pascal
puritan notion of utter dependence of all things on God
Modern period is characterised by 2 questions:
1. Is it reasonable to belive in God?
2. If it is reasonable, then what kind of God should we believe in?
2 kinds of theology in the modern period:
1. revealed theology
2. natural theology
It is the kind of theology wherein God reveals himself and we have the grace to accept it (faith)
A kind of theology wherein God is independent of faith and what he says of himself.
Relies on human reason to justify your acts of believing
Who says "there is no proff that will convince the non believer, while believer needs no proof"?
Natural theology which deals with proofs of existence, arose during which period?
2 categories of traditional proofs (natural theology):
1. deduction (a priori)
2. induction (posteriori)
Who outlined 4 ways of assesing the value of deductive arguments?
What was the book of George Mavrodes?
Belief in God
What are the 4 ways of assessing the value of deductive arguments?
an assessment with formal structure of argument
conclusion would be true if premises are true
an assessment where the argument is valid and the premises are true
an assessment where an argument that is sound and is known by someone to be sound
an assessment where an argument is cogent and can be known to be cogent by someone on grounds that are independent of the conclusion of the argument
always person relative
What are the 4 classes of arguments for God's existence?
This argument shows that the very concept of God implies his existence
Who was a proponent of the ontological argument? book?
St. anselm of canterbury
How does anselm define God?
-that which nothing greater can be concieved
-it's greater to exist also in reality than just in the understanding
Who objected to Anselm saying that his proof demonstrates that anything can exist?
but Anselm argues that God is a NECESSARY being
Who objected to Anselm saying that existence is not a property which a thing may or may not have in varying degrees
Is the ontological argument a priori or posteriori?
Argument that says that God is the ultimate cause.
-the existence of god is from the consmos or the universe
cosmological argument is also called?
Is cosmological argument a priori or posteriori?
Who are the proponents of the cosmological arguments?
Plato & Aristotle
St. Thomas Aquinas & Duns Scotus
20th Century: Richard Taylor & Richard Swinburne
What is the form of argumentation of the cosmological argument?
There exists a necessary being which is the ultimate cause of the existence of contingent beings.
Which kind of argument is a kind of cosmological argument because its starting point is that the universe is a cosmos/ an orderly universe?
Teleological argument is also referred to as?
The argument from design
Which argument is only based on probabiliy?
Who are the proponents of the Teleological argument?
St. Tomas Aquinas
20th century: Richard Taylor, FR Tennant, Richard Swinburne
According to Aquinas, what are the 2 features that imply design?
According to william paley, God is the...
What is the form of argumentation of the teleological argument?
Nature is probably the work of a designer.
What theory under the teleological argument argues that evolution is not a result of undirected, random natural selection but by an intelligent cause?
Theory of intelligent design
Which argument has an appeal on the conscience?
What remains the voice of god amongst us?
-basis of the objectively binding rules
Like the teleological argument, this is also probabilistic..
Who is the main proponent of the moral argument?
CS Lewis in Mere Christianity
What are the objectively binding rules?
What is the form of argumentation of the moral argument?
Probably there is a God
What are the 2 objections to the moral argument? (there are objectively binding moral obligations)
1. Cultural relativism
Which moral objection interprets moral obligation in terms of social approval and that morality is a products of human culture?
Which moral objection arises when a person says that an act is wrong, but the peron is only expression her individual emotion about the act?
What are the 5 types of beliefs in god based on beliefs on major world religions?
what is polytheism?
the belief that there exists a plurality of personal gods
what is henotheism
it recognizes a pluraitly of gods, but restricts allegiance to one god
wat is monotheism?
belief that only one God exists
what is pnatheism?
god is identical w/ nature or with the univvers as a whole
what is panentheism?
god is not identical with the universe but must be seen as including the universe
what are the 6 types of beliefs in god based on philosophical systems and positions?
3. absolute monism
what is dualism?
it is the plurality of two gods opposed to each other
what is deism?
belief in one god, but does not involve himself in his creation
what is absolute monism?
god is an absolute unity manifested in a less fully real world
what is agnosticism?
truth of God's existence cannot be known and hence one suspends judgement on this question
what is atheism?
actual denial of god's existence
what is naturalism?
atheism positively expressed
Among theistic religions, what is the common agreement to God's nature?
God is supposed to be worthy of worship, the supreme object of religious devotion
God is considered to be (3)
3. morally perfect or all good
What are the 5 things God is said to be?
2. necessary being
3. personal being
What are the 2 ways of understanding God as a necessary being?
1. god is logically necessary
2. God is self-existent
Being ______, God has no body and is just pure spirit.