Lecture 5 Thinking Religion in the Modern World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5 Thinking Religion in the Modern World Deck (80):
1

What are the 3 complications of fides quaerens intellectum?

1. christian reformation movements
2. new science / nova scientia
3. impoverishment of traditional philosophical speculation on divine matters

2

christian reformation movements were critical of the use of what?

of philosophy in discussions of God and creation

3

Who mocked Aristotle and favored experience, and then subordinating everything to the gospel

martin luther
john calvin

4

what are the oppositions between philosophy and the gospel

1. sinful nature of man
2. impotence of philosophy
3. God would teach his truth by inspiration to all

5

Why did Martin luther and john calvin become critical of philo of religion?

1. you subject faith to reason (w/c is corrupted)
2. When dealing w/ beliefs, you have to belive FIDEISM

6

What is Fideism?

-faith is independent of reason
- our reason is incapable of describing our faith
-our faith can only be attained by INSPIRATION

7

luther and calvin say that the only way to learn about god is by?

experience

8

Who founded Nova Scientia?

Francis Bacon's Novum Organum

9

Faith grounded on scriptires said that the earth is the center of the universe

condemnation of galileo

science found tha tmost of the results go against religious reason

10

How is traditional philosophical speculation on divine matters impoverished?

-tendency to legislate upon doctrines and dont think of the divine
-theology was reduced to cannon law

11

What does Ens Realissimum mean

God of the philosophers

12

Modern thinkers affirmed the existence of God

true

13

Religion of john locke and george berkeley

anglicans

14

Religion of
nicolas malebrance, antoine arnauld, blaise pascal

roman catholics

15

Religion of
G.W. Leibniz

Lutheran

16

Religion of
Jonathan Edwards

puritan notion of utter dependence of all things on God

17

Religion of
Thomas hobbes

Theist

18

Modern period is characterised by 2 questions:

1. Is it reasonable to belive in God?
2. If it is reasonable, then what kind of God should we believe in?

19

2 kinds of theology in the modern period:

1. revealed theology
2. natural theology

20

It is the kind of theology wherein God reveals himself and we have the grace to accept it (faith)

Revealed theology

21

A kind of theology wherein God is independent of faith and what he says of himself.
Relies on human reason to justify your acts of believing

Natural theology

22

Who says "there is no proff that will convince the non believer, while believer needs no proof"?

Pascal

23

Natural theology which deals with proofs of existence, arose during which period?

Modern Period

24

2 categories of traditional proofs (natural theology):

1. deduction (a priori)
2. induction (posteriori)

25

Who outlined 4 ways of assesing the value of deductive arguments?

George Mavrodes

26

What was the book of George Mavrodes?

Belief in God

27

What are the 4 ways of assessing the value of deductive arguments?

1. validity
2. soundness
3. cogency
4. convincing

28

an assessment with formal structure of argument
conclusion would be true if premises are true

validity

29

an assessment where the argument is valid and the premises are true

soundess

30

an assessment where an argument that is sound and is known by someone to be sound

cogency

31

an assessment where an argument is cogent and can be known to be cogent by someone on grounds that are independent of the conclusion of the argument

convincing

always person relative

32

What are the 4 classes of arguments for God's existence?

1. ontological
2. cosmological
3. teleological
4. moral

33

This argument shows that the very concept of God implies his existence

ontological argument

34

Who was a proponent of the ontological argument? book?

St. anselm of canterbury
Proslogion

35

How does anselm define God?

-that which nothing greater can be concieved
-it's greater to exist also in reality than just in the understanding

36

Who objected to Anselm saying that his proof demonstrates that anything can exist?

Gaunilo

but Anselm argues that God is a NECESSARY being

37

Who objected to Anselm saying that existence is not a property which a thing may or may not have in varying degrees

Immanuel Kant

38

Is the ontological argument a priori or posteriori?

a priori

39

Argument that says that God is the ultimate cause.
-the existence of god is from the consmos or the universe

Cosmological argument

40

cosmological argument is also called?

first-cause argument

41

Is cosmological argument a priori or posteriori?

poseteriori

42

Who are the proponents of the cosmological arguments?

Plato & Aristotle
St. Thomas Aquinas & Duns Scotus
20th Century: Richard Taylor & Richard Swinburne

43

What is the form of argumentation of the cosmological argument?

There exists a necessary being which is the ultimate cause of the existence of contingent beings.

44

Which kind of argument is a kind of cosmological argument because its starting point is that the universe is a cosmos/ an orderly universe?

Teleological universe

45

Teleological argument is also referred to as?

The argument from design

46

Which argument is only based on probabiliy?

Teleological argument

47

Who are the proponents of the Teleological argument?

St. Tomas Aquinas
William Paley
20th century: Richard Taylor, FR Tennant, Richard Swinburne

48

According to Aquinas, what are the 2 features that imply design?

1. order
2. virtue

49

According to william paley, God is the...

watch maker

50

What is the form of argumentation of the teleological argument?

Nature is probably the work of a designer.

51

What theory under the teleological argument argues that evolution is not a result of undirected, random natural selection but by an intelligent cause?

Theory of intelligent design

52

Which argument has an appeal on the conscience?

Moral Argument

53

What remains the voice of god amongst us?
-basis of the objectively binding rules

Conscience

54

Like the teleological argument, this is also probabilistic..

moral argument

55

Who is the main proponent of the moral argument?

Kant
CS Lewis in Mere Christianity

56

What are the objectively binding rules?

God's teachings

57

What is the form of argumentation of the moral argument?

Probably there is a God

58

What are the 2 objections to the moral argument? (there are objectively binding moral obligations)

1. Cultural relativism
2. Emotivism

59

Which moral objection interprets moral obligation in terms of social approval and that morality is a products of human culture?

cultural relativism

60

Which moral objection arises when a person says that an act is wrong, but the peron is only expression her individual emotion about the act?

Emotivism

61

What are the 5 types of beliefs in god based on beliefs on major world religions?

1. polytheism
2. henotheism
3. monotheism
4. pantheism
5. panentheism

62

what is polytheism?

the belief that there exists a plurality of personal gods

63

what is henotheism

it recognizes a pluraitly of gods, but restricts allegiance to one god

64

wat is monotheism?

belief that only one God exists

65

what is pnatheism?

god is identical w/ nature or with the univvers as a whole

66

what is panentheism?

god is not identical with the universe but must be seen as including the universe

67

what are the 6 types of beliefs in god based on philosophical systems and positions?

1. dualism
2. deism
3. absolute monism
4. agnosticism
5. atheism
6. naturalism

68

what is dualism?

it is the plurality of two gods opposed to each other

69

what is deism?

belief in one god, but does not involve himself in his creation

70

what is absolute monism?

god is an absolute unity manifested in a less fully real world

71

what is agnosticism?

truth of God's existence cannot be known and hence one suspends judgement on this question

72

what is atheism?

actual denial of god's existence

73

what is naturalism?

atheism positively expressed

74

Among theistic religions, what is the common agreement to God's nature?

God is supposed to be worthy of worship, the supreme object of religious devotion

75

God is considered to be (3)

1. omnipotent
2. omniscient
3. morally perfect or all good

76

What are the 5 things God is said to be?

1. infinite
2. necessary being
3. personal being
4. eternal
5. immutability

77

What are the 2 ways of understanding God as a necessary being?

1. god is logically necessary
2. God is self-existent

78

Being ______, God has no body and is just pure spirit.

omnipresent

79

For true faith to be grounded, it must have an _______ of what it believes in

UNDERSTANDING

80

Blind faith is or is not true fait

is not