Lecture 6: Respiratory System Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6: Respiratory System Pharmacology Deck (93)
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1

How are most pulmonary drugs introduced to the body?

inhaled

2

What is the advantage of pulmonary drugs being inhaled?

a high concentration of the drug is delivered locally to the lungs (reducing systemic side effects)

3

t/f: pulmonary drugs can only be inhaled

f: can be given orally or other routes

4

What are the two most common chronic pulmonary diseases that are characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways?

asthma and COPD

5

In what two diseases does mucus or other secretions block airways?

asthma and chronic bronchitis

6

contraction/narrowing of bronchial smooth muscle is associated with what condition?

asthma

7

emphysema results from ______?

collapsed airways (loss of elastic structural quality)

8

Asthma: are the airways hypo-reactive or hyper-reactive?

hyper-reactive

9

Asthma: increased number of ______ cells in the lung airway smooth muscle

mast

10

Asthma: increased histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins causes what two things to happen?

1. bronchoconstriction of airways
2. leakage of lung capillaries

11

Asthma: what two cells infiltrate the airway

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils

12

Asthma: t/f: chronic nature leads to structure changes (remodeling)

t

13

the chronic nature of asthma leads to two structural changes - what are they?

1. thicker smooth muscle (narrower opening - more reactive)
2. more mucus-secreting cells (blocks airway)

14

what disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways

asthma

15

what disease is the chronic inflammation of small airways

COPD

16

what are two general terms for COPD?

1. emphysema
2. chronic bronchitis

17

COPD: why does emphysema happen?

Excessive amounts of elastase are released from inflammatory neutrophils in the lungs

18

what leads to progressive, narrowing fibrosis and/or destruction of alveolar walls?

emphysema

19

chronic irritants of what disease lead to hypertrophy of mucus glands?

chronic bronchitis

20

chronic bronchitis results in two things - what are they?

1. Excessive mucus in lungs
2. Bronchoconstriction of airways

21

drug considerations: what is used to treat narrow/constricted airways?

bronchodilator drugs

22

drug considerations: what is used to treat inflammation?

glucocorticoid drugs

23

drug considerations: what is used to treat excess mucus?

mucolytic drug to treat/break up the mucus

24

what are the three symptoms that warrant a rescue or controller inhaler?

1. Wheezing, difficulty breathing
2. Chest tightness
3. Coughing

25

what is the difference between a rescue inhaler vs. a controller inhaler?

rescue: Onset of action is fast so can be used for acute symptom relief

controller: Used to control/try to prevent asthma symptoms from occurring, but don’t act fast enough to relieve acute worsening of symptoms

26

Rescue inhaler: _____ acting? Another name?

- quick
- reliever

27

Controller inhaler: _____ acting? Another name?

- long
- maintenance

28

what are the (3) drug classes of bronchodilators?

1. B2 agonists
2. Parasympathetic antagonists (Anti-cholinergic)
3. Theophylline

29

Are B2 agonists sympathetic or parasympathetic?

sympathetic

30

what do B2 agonists stimulate?

B2 receptors on the lungs