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Flashcards in lecture 7 Deck (40):
1

what is purpose of vaginal cytology

1. to help determine optimal time for breeding when used with history, signs or estrus, +/- hormone assays
2. to assess infectious inflammatory or neoplastic disorders

2

what are the four main classifications of vaginal cytology

basal cells, parabasal cells, intermediate cells, superficial epithelial cells

3

what are basal cells

generally never see in vaginal smears

4

what are parabasal cells

high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
small round cells with round nucleus
larger than basal cells
, large numbers may exfoliate when the vagina of a prepubertal animal is swabbed

5

what are intermediate cells

as intermediate cells increase in size, cytoplasm becomes irregular, folded or angular, more similar to superficial epithelial cells

6

what are superficial cells

large, polygonal shape, cornflake cells

7

how would we know whether a dog has vaginitis due to bacterial infection

bacteria with neutrophils phagocytosing

8

what are the 4 stages of the canine estrous cycle

1. proetrus
2.estrus
3.diestrus
4.anestrus

9

what is proestrus

9 days length in dogs
have a mixture of parabasal, small and large intermediate/ superficial cells
RBCs and non-degenerate neutrophils vary in number

10

what is late proestrus

large intermeidate and superficial cells predominate, as estrus approaches neutrophils completely disappear, RBCs still vary in number, bacteria often seen in large numbers

11

what is estrus

9 days in length
Ovulation occurs 2 days after LH surge
1. 80-90% superficial cells
2. RBCS vary
3. NO NEUTROPHILS
4. large numbers of bacteria
5. usually clear background with no mucus

12

how is ovulation determined

measured by the leutinizing hormone LH, not cytology

13

what is diestrus

occurs 8 days in length after lH surge
sudden decrease in number of SEC, increase parabasal and intermediate, non-dengerate neutrophils, RBCs and bacteria may be present

14

how do we know when anestrus

vaginal mucous is dry, parabasal and intermediate predominate, non-degenerate neutrophils and bacteria

15

which species need to be bred to ovulate

cats and rabbits

16

what is endometritis

clusters of foamy secretory endometrial lining cells may also be seen

17

what may we see with pyometra or metritis

++++ degenerate neutrophils and bacteria
E. coli is a main thing we see with it

18

what is transmissible venereal tumour

sticker tumour, only transmissible by other canids by touch

19

what do we do for daily luteinzing hormone testing in dogs

for increased accuracy of ovulation timing, once the LH surge has been identified breeding days may be planned

20

what 4 things do we do for pregnancy diagnosis

1. palpation
2.radiography - day 42+ of preg.
3. ultrasonopgrahy (day 25 to 35 of pregnancy, fetal HR at day 28)
4.serum relaxin concentration - day 30+

21

what is pseudopregnancy

also called pseudocyesis, false pregnancy
occurs at expected whelping time
decrease in progesterone and increase in prolactin,
nesting, lactation, mothering

22

what 3 things are part of the male reproductive tract

testes, prostate, semen eval.

23

what are the three major neoplasms of importance in the testis

seminoma, sertoli cell tumour, interstitial cell tumour

24

why may we do a FNA or biospy on testes

unilateral or bilateral enlargement, nodule

25

semen is divided into 3 fractions what are they

1. first in clear and lubricating
2. second is sperm rich fraction (SRF)
3, third is prostatic fluid

Dogs produce 1- 40 ml of semen and cats up to 0.5ml

26

how long does it take for germinal cell to mature sperm take

72 days

27

what 5 things do we need to do for semen evaluation

1. measurement of ejaculated volume
2. assessment of gross appearance
3. sperm concentration
4, sperm morphologoy
5. Live:dead sperm ratio

28

what is the sperm concentration for dogs

100-500 million/ml

29

what si the sperm concentration for bulls

1200 million/ml

30

what is the sperm concentration for horses

120 million.ml

31

what are the 2 methods of sperm motility

1. wave motion
2. progessive motility

32

what stain do we have to use to do live; dead sperm eval.

vital stain (Eosin Y)

33

what is necrospermia

dead or motionles sperm

34

what shape heads does rodent sperm have

hook-shaped

35

what shape heads do bull and human sperm have

paddle-shapped

36

what shape heads do chicken sperm have

spindle-shaped

37

when may we want to do a cytology of the urinary tract

cystitis and neoplasia

38

what are the methods of cell collection

1. collect urine
2. FNA of a mass with ultrasound guindance
3. catheterization and traumatization of a mass to increase cell yield

39

what is the disadvantage of using sedi-stain in a sediment check

it adds bacteria generally

40

can we see phagocytised bacteria in a wet mount

no