Flashcards in Lecture 7 Deck (66):
Children 3 to 5 years old prefer foods based on?
Sweetness And familiarity
At what age the sweetness peak?
12 years old
At age 12 food preferences include?
Smell and texture
What May lead to overconsumption of sugar-added foods resulting in obesity?
Low-cost and readily available
What may lead to disassociation of energy from sweetness?
Low calorie sweetener’s
Low-calorie sweeteners can disrupt The balance between??? Especially during infancy.
Taste response, Appetite, consumption patterns.
What was obesity considered as in the past?
Maladaptive behavior (eating too much)
(T/F) Low bodyweight increases the preference of sweet foods.
(T/F) When studies of fatty foods were included in research, and inverse relationship Between BMI and sweetness(vs fat) What is found in both obese and anorexic subjects.
Taste studies confirmed Sensory preference for? and BMI or fat mass.
Fat (Not sweet)
Both normal way and for obese subjects, hedonic preferences for taste stimuli were a joint function of ? and ?.
Sugar and Fat content (heavy whipping cream)
Obese men prefer high-fat + ________ foods while obese women prefer high-fat + _________ foods.
What may be another cause of "overeating"?
Humans have evolved to prefer ____-____ foods.
What do parents provide their children with that can't and can be altered?
Genes- cannot be altered
Eating Environment (learned eating patterns- Can be altered
Early eating experiences can shape _______, the _______&_______ of meals, the ____ /____ contexts of eating and ___________.
1. types of foods children will select
2. timing and size
4. eating modeling
Children who have obese parents are _________ likely to be obese. (this is also referred to as the ________ ________)
2. the Interaction Effect
What predispositions interact with learning effects to shape more mature food preferences in children?
2. Infants are born liking the taste of sweet/salty foods but dislike bitter foods.
Modern society has many foods rich in ____, ____, and _____.
Sugar, Salt, & Fat
Parental dietary restriction can result in _________.
Children who have parents that restrict bad foods are more likely to?
Eat the foods that their parents restricted (girls>boys>
Mother's who use high levels of restriction have high levels of dietary restraint themselves. This can lead to a child becoming a ___________.
Children have learned to be concerned about weight but the age of _______.
Though many studies exist, why is it difficult to compare them?
1. Prevalence (how often they're asked if they are dieting)
2. General questions (Who asks the question and how do they ask it)
Broad population studies are "high risk" and get skewed because?
1. they ask few, smaller and more specific questions.
What can the word dieting be perceived as?
1. A simple desire to lose weight
2. Periodic use of several weight-loss behaviors
3. An attempt to maintain current weight
Self-reports are of questionable truth given biases in ______, _______, and ________.
2. Social desirability
3. misconceptions about its meaning
In Western societies, ____% of women and ____% of men are currently trying to lose weight.
40% of women
20% of men
How can asking the questions "are you currently trying to lose weight?" & "Do you watch what you eat?" affect the statistics?
1st question drops the % of ppl saying yes to less than half
What factors influence the prevalence of dieting?
3. Geographic location
4. body weight
6. social class
What is the order of ages that diet the most--->least?
Adolescents > Adults > Young adolescents
How does geography play a role in % of ppl who diet?
US > European > Australian
(T/F) Obesity higher in asia compared to US.
How does Socio-Economic (SE) and ethnic factors play a role in dieting?
-Poor ppl don't diet but rich people do
-Blacks dont diet but whites do
What are healthy approaches to dieting?
1. reduce amounts eaten per meal
2. Avoid fat
3. Avoid eating between meals
4. Avoid candies and sweet drinks
Keys and co-workers (1950) are credited with....?
The first experimental dieting to the extent of starvation
What are general findings of (Keys)?
-men lost 25% of their former BW
Common features- reduced concentration, and reduced interest in activities as well as sex.
What are attitudes/ behaviors toward food (Keys)?
-Increased preoccupations with food
What emotional changes occurred due to (Keys)?
Emotional stress/deterioration (depression)
What are physical changes that occurred during dieting (Keys)?
1. GI discomfort
2. Need more sleep
5. Hypersensitive to light and noise
6. Reduced strength
7. Reduced activity
8. Hair loss
What other physical changes occurred during dieting (Keys)?
2. Intolerance to cold
3. ringing in ears
4. abnormal tingling
What changes occurred during re-feeding (Keys)?
1. Increased sluggishness
2. too much "flab"
3. Fear of weight gain/feeling fat
They tended to over gain weight by 10%
What is a "restrained eater" defined as?
Ppl who chronically diet to control body weight
What are features "restrained eaters" have with starvation subjects?
1. Difficulty concentration
2. Thinking more about food than normal
3. Remembering more food-related info than others
(T/F) BW of dieters tends to fluctuate a lot, even if they were using specific meal plans instead of responding to normal hunger cues.
Features of "restrained eaters" include?
Not compensating for over-eating when they break their diets
-Thinking more about food than normal
- Thinking about food as guilt-inducing vs acceptable
- Mood changes & irritability
Who eats more? (emotionally distressed dieters or non-dieters)
Emotionally distressed dieters
Chronic dieters crave foods more than others, particularly foods not "allowed"
Other Maladaptive behaviors displayed by dieters "restrained eaters" are___________?
2. Higher incidence of developing ED's
3. Low self-esteem
4. Expect eating to reduce negative affects
5. Have low self-esteem mothers
Key factors predicting counter-regulatory eating may be?
1. "Rigid" not "flexible" control over BW and eating
2. "High" susceptibility to perceived failure of restraint (they think they are going to fail if they try to resist eating so they do it anyways)
(T/F) Scientifically-based weight loss programs include fad diets or quick-fix approaches.
Sound diets are ________, and emphasize_________?
2.emphasize low in fat and saturated fats
3. high in complex carbohydrates
Whats the goal of a sound diet?
negative energy balance in a sensible way combined with exercise and life-style changes.
What will rapid BW loss lead to?
- reduced muscle mass, which decreases metabolic rate
-increase in ease of regaining weight (yoyo dieting)
Sensible dieting avoids this by _____________?
Maintaining dietary protein and exercise programs to prevent muscle loss
(T/F) BW loss invariably produce poor moods.
False (actually can make ppl feel better)
(T/F) All bingers are the same.
False ("grazers" eat a lot of smaller meals over a longer period of time)
Binging is explained by__________?
- interaction in learned behaviors
- affect (mood)
- interpersonal systems (social variables)
Binging can be viewed in terms of? (4)
1. predisposing factors
4. maintenance variables
What are examples of predisposition factors to binge?
1. social (media portrayal)
2. Familial (family interaction)
3. Interpersonal (abuse)
4. Psychological (self-esteem, perfectionism)
What are "triggers" to binging? (2 main ones)
1. food restriction (physiological)
2. negative emotions (psychological)
-emotional stress takes on the primary role
What are the consequences of binging?
Blocks cognitive/affective factors and helps avoid thinking about social and interpersonal situations of problems.
Can lead to other approaches such as self-harm, drugs, shop-lifting
(T/F) Binging is a learned escape behavior, particularly in impulsive people.
TRUE (VERY IMPORTANT)
Binging--> escape behavior + impulsive ppl
What do people do to compensate for binging?
What does short-term binging do?
Reduce anxiety about weight gain as well as loss of control about overeating
What does long-term binging do?
leads to unhealthy cognitions, emotional states and social problems that helped initiate binges in the first place