Lecture 7: CNS Drugs (p1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: CNS Drugs (p1) Deck (165)
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1

cells communicate in the CNS via ________ using ______

1. neurotransmission
2. neurotransmitters

2

what is a long tube that carries an electrical signal called action potential?

axon

3

how are action potentials generated?

opening of Na+ channels in the neuron

4

action potentials cause NT to be released from where?

nerve terminal

5

name 6 CNS NT.

1. GABA
2. Norepinephrine
3. Serotonin
4. Dopamine
5. Acetylcholine (cholinergic)
6. glutamate

6

what (2) general drug class target voltage-gated Na channels in neurons to reduce firing rate (AP)

1. anesthetics
2. anti-seizure(anti-convulsants)

7

name 3 endogenous opioid systems.

1. endorphins
2. enkephalins
3. dynorphin

8

GABA agonist drugs do what?

stimulate/enhance effects on GABA

9

t/f: neurons that release the NT GABA are present throughout the CNS

t

10

t/f: GABA releasing neurons form larger connections between shorter neurons within every region or nucleus of the CNS

f: GABA releasing neurons form shorter connections between larger neurons within every region or nucleus of the CNS

11

GABA receptors are called:

GABA receptors

12

t/f: GABA receptors are on ALL neurons in the CNS

t

13

what is the drug strategy treatment of GABA agonist drugs?

goal: to increase the effects of GABA (which are inhibitory effects)

14

what type of NT is GABA?

inhibitory NT

15

GABA opens ________ channels in the ______ receptors in the neuron membrane.

1. chloride
2. GABA

16

the negative charge of the chloride ions offset what? what does this PREVENT?

1. the positive charge of sodium channels
2. prevents neurons from generating an AP

17

t/f: normal physiologic role of GABA in the brain is to make large neurons less excitable/more "quiet" most of the time

t

18

loss or failure of GABA system neuron inhibition results in excessive neuron activity. Name 4 conditions.

1. seizures
2. anxiety
3. insomnia
4. muscle spasms

19

in GABA agonist drugs - what are the 4 important sites drugs can bind?

1. GABA binding site
2. benzodiazepine binding site
3. barbiturate binding site
4. ethanol binding site

20

GABA agonist drugs can have different binding sites but binding of any _______ of the sites causes the _____effect

1. one
2. same

21

in GABA agonist drugs - if multiple (or all) sites are bound by drugs taken at the same time -- what happens?

- they do NOT compete with each other, because each has its own binding site
- can cause TOO much effect if taken in combination

22

when the NT GABA binds the GABA receptor it activates the receptor and ________ the neuron from firing

inhibits

23

name 6 common uses of GABA drugs.

1. insomnia
2. general anesthesia
3. muscle spasms
4. anxiety
5. seizures (convulsion)
6. alcohol or opioid drug withdrawal symptoms

24

when benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or ethanol binds the GABA receptor they will _________ the effects of GABA, thereby causing more _______ of neuron firing

1. enhances
2. inhibition

25

name four benzodiazepine drugs.

1. diazepam
2. alprazolam
3. lorazepam
4. clonazepam

26

what is the MOA for benzodiazepine drugs?

enhance the effects of GABA, inhibition neurotransmission by opening the chloride channel on the GABA receptor

27

benzodiazepine drugs, in general, are used to treat what 6 conditions? what is the most common use?

1. insomnia
2. general anesthesia
3. muscle spasms
4. anxiety ****
5. seizures (convulsion)
6. alcohol or opioid drug withdrawal symptoms

28

what are (5) benzodiazepine adverse effects?

1. over-sedation
2. reduced coordination (increased risk of falling with elderly)
3. impair memory
4. risk of dependence, addiction, and withdrawal
5. mild anti-cholinergic

29

what are (6) mild anticholinergic effects?

1. inhibition of M3 (iris): mydriasis
2. inhibition of M3 (lacrimal gland): dry eye
3. inhibition of M3 (ciliary muscle): decrease accommodation
4. inhibition of M2 (ciliary muscle): increase IOP
5. dry mouth
6. urinary retention/ constipation

30

what can be a sequela of combining benzodiazepine and alcohol or opioid drugs?

it can be fatal