Lecture 7: Immune Receptors and Signal Transduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: Immune Receptors and Signal Transduction Deck (59):
1

Primary T cell Deficiency (TCR Signaling)

  • CD40 ligand deficiency
  • CD40 deficiency
  • CD3gamma deficiency
  • CD8 deficiency
  • ZAP-70 deficiency
  • Ca++ channel deficiency
  • CD25 deficiency
  • STAT5b deficiency
  • Itk deficiency
  • DOCK8 deficiency

2

Nuclear receptors are intracellular transcription factors that are activated by ______ that can cross the plasma membrane

lipid-soluble ligands (estrogen, progesterone, retinoic acid) 

3

Enzymatic phosphorylation of ___, ___, or ____ in the cytosolic portion of the receptor initiates the signal transduction 

tyrosine, serine, or threonine

4

Specific phosphatases usually play a ____ role in signaling transduction

inhibitory

5

Tyrosine Kinase Families 

  • Src family (c-Src, Lyn, Fyn, and Lck
  • Syk family (Syk and ZAP-70)
  • Tec family (Tec, Btk, and Itk)

6

SH2 domains bind

phosphotyrosine

7

SH3 binds 

proline-rich peptides

8

PH (Pleckstrin homology)  domain binds (note the pleckstrin name derives from platelet and leukocyte C kinase substrate and the KSTR string of amino acids) 

inositol phopholipids (PIP3) or other phosphatidylinosiol-derived lipids

9

SH2 domains are composed of about ___ amino acids while SH3 domains are composed of about ____ amino acids

100 (SH2 domains)

50 (SH3 domains)

10

The Btk tyrosine kinase recognizes a lipid moiety on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane termed 

phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3) ( note that the other Tec family kinases are Tec and Itk

11

Do adaptor proteins have catalytic activity 

No

12

adaptor proteins contain only _____ interaction domains

protein-protein 

13

adaptor proteins are molecular hubs that physically link different enzymes and promote the assembly of complexes of signaling molecules. Ex?

  • LAT (linker for the activation of T cells)
  • BLNK (B cell linker) 
  • SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing linker protien)
  • GADS (Grb-2 related adaptor protein downstream of Shc)

14

____ is an integral membrane protein that functions as an adaptor 

LAT (lysophospholipid-Acyl-Transferase) 

15

LAT is phosphorylated and recruits ____ and the ____ adaptor

Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLCgamma) and the GADS adaptor 

16

SLP-76 (proline-rich stretch) associates with GADS via _____  domain and recruits _____ after being tyrosine phosphorylated 

  • SH3 domain 
  • VAV

17

_____  proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for GTPases that activate actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations

VAV

18

phosphorylated ITIMs recuruit 

tyrosine or inositol lipid phosphatases, which remove phosphate residues from phosphotyrosine moieties or from certain lipid phosphates and thus counteract ITAM-based immune receptor activation 

19

Tyrosine-phosphorylated ITAMs recruit a distinct tyroxsine kinase of the _____ family, which contains tandem SH2 domains that each bind to one of the two phosphorylated YxxL/I motifs of the ITAM 

Syk/ZAP-70

20

The inhibitory receptor _____ is found on B cells and myeloid cells

FcyRIIB

21

activating receptors have separate polypeptide chains for recognition and associated signaling polypeptide chains that contain cytosolic _____

ITAMs

22

Inhibitory receptors in the immune system typically have ____ on the cytolsolic portion of the same chain that uses its extracellular domain for ligand recognition 

ITIMs

23

FcepsilonRI is what kind of receptor 

high-affinity activating receptor for IgE 

24

What kind of receptor is FCgammaRIIB

  • inihibitory Fc receptor for IgG
  • found on B cells and myeloid cells 

25

Signaling downstream of TCRs and BCRs is characterized by a similar sequence of events consisting of:

  • Receptor ligation typically involves the clustering of receptors by multivalent ligands and results in activation of an associated Src family kinase. 
  • receptor ligation may also induce the unfolding of the cytoplasmic tail of a polypeptide chain that is part of the receptor. The unfolding event (or conformational change) may allow previously hidden tyrosine residues of a cytosolic ITAM motif to become available for phosphorylation by a Src family kinase 
  • The activated Src family kinase phosphorylates available tyrosines in the ITAMs of signaling proteins that are part of the receptor complex
  • The two phosphorylated tyrosines in a single ITAM are recognized by a Syk family tyrosine kinase that has  tandem SH2 domains that each bind to an ITAM phosphotyrosine 
  • Recruitment of the Syk family kinase to the phosphorylated ITAM results in the activation of this tyrosine kinase and the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of adaptor proteins and enzymes that activate distinct signaling pathways downstream of the immune receptor 

26

The TCR complex has ___ signaling chains and ___ ITAMs, and increasing numbers of ITAMs may be phosphorylated with stronger or prolonged bidning of antigen to the TCR 

6 signaling chains

10 ITAMs

27

a coreceptor is a _________ signaling protein on a lymphocyte that can facilitate Ag receptor activation

transmembrane

28

The coreceptor with its signaling enzymes can 

increase ITAM phosphorylation and activation fo the Ag receptor 

29

Coreceptor on B cells 

Complement receptor tyep 2 (CR2/CD21) 

 

30

key inhibitory receptors in T cells 

CTLA-4 and PD-1

31

Inhibitory receptors in B cells 

CD22 and FcgammaRIIB 

32

Prototypic costimulatory receptor on T cells 

CD28 (which is activated by costimulatory molecules B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) ligands induced on APCs as a resulte of their exposure to microbes) 

33

What is the difference between costimulation and coreceptors 

unlike coreceptors, costimulatory receptors do not recognize components of the same ligands as do antigen receptors; signal outputs downstream of costimulatory receptors are integrated with the signals derived from the antigen receptor, and these signals cooperate to fully activate lymphocytes 

34

The TCR complex consists of ______, ____, and ____ the association of these proteins with one another is mediated by 

  • The TCR complex consists of 
    • Alphabeta TCR non-covalently linked to CD3 and zeta proteins 
  • The association of these proteins with one another is mediated by charged residues in their transmembrane regions 

35

the alpha and beta chains of the TCR have carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tails that are ___ to ___ amino acids long and there for are 

5 to 12 amino acids long and are therefore too small to transduce signals, CD3 and zeta proteins serve as signal-transducing subunits of TCR complex 

36

structure of CD4

  • Four extracellular Ig-like domains
  • a hydrophobic transmembrane region
  • a highly basic cytoplasmic tail 38 amino acids long 

37

Structure of CD8 coreceptors 

  • is composed of two related chains called CD8alpha and CD8beta
    • CD8alpha and CD8beta have:
      • a single extracellular Ig domain
      • a hydrophobic transmembrane region
      • a highly basic cytoplasmic tail that is about 25 amino acds long 

38

CD8 coreceptors interact with

MHC class I and also Beta2 microglobulin

39

CD4 and CD8 are T cell coreceptors that bind to ________ of MHC molecules and facilitate signaling by the TCR complex during T cell activation 

polymorphic regions 

40

On ag recognition, TCR complex cluster with CD4 or CD8. CD4/CD8-associated Lck becomes active and ____________. Then ZAP-70 

  • Lck: phosphorylates ITAMs of CD3 and zeta chains
  • ZAP-70: binds to the phosphotyrosines of the zeta chains that become self-phosphorylated and activated. It then activates (phosphorylates) various adaptor proteins such as LAT

41

42

Ligation of the TCR with Ag and CD29-CD80/CD86 costimulation results in 

rapid activation fo phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) 

43

What is the funciton of PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) 

converts phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3) 

44

what is the function of PDK1

PDK1, a PIP3-dependent kinase, phosphorylates and activates a downstream Akt kinase 

45

What is the function of activated Akt 

contributes to cell survival by inactivating pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family of apoptotic proteins 

46

List the steps in the Ras-pathway

  • upon ag recognition, Lck activates ZAP-70
  • ZAP-70 phosphorylates/activates membrane-associated adaptor proteins LAT
  • activated LAT binds Grb-2 adaptor protein
  • Grb-2 docks the GTP/GDP exchange factor SOS
  • SOS converts Ras-GDP to Ras-GTP
  • Ras-GTP activates MAP kinase (MEK-1) and ERK 
  • ERK activates transcription factor AP-1

47

PLCgamma 1 in T cell signaling 

  •  activated LAT adaptor protien binds PLCgamma-1
  • The ZAP-70 activates PLCgamma-1 
  • activated PLCgamma-1 hydrolyzes membrane PIP2 and generates IP3 (inositol trisphosphate) and DAG (diacyl-glycerol) 
  • Produced IP3 stimulates an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ released from the ER
  • Then, DAG activates the enzyme PKC
  • Then, PKC and Ca2+ ions induce numerous cellular responses

48

what are the three major groups of MAP kinases in mammalian cells 

  • ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases)
  • p38 MAP kinases
  • JNK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases 

49

ELK is a transcritpion factor that activates transcription of transcriptional factor ____

Fos

50

The p38 and JNK MAP kinases are activated by ____ from the Rho fmaily GTPases

Rac-GTP

51

Protein Jun in combination with Fos forms the 

AP-1 early response transcription factor 

52

The alternative Pathway of NF-kBeta pathway

  • is engaged by a restricted set of cell-surface receptors 
    • LTbetaR
    • BAFF-R
    • CD40
  • This pathway culminates in the activaiton of IKKalpha 
  • IKKAlpha directly phosphorylates RelB/p100 (NF-kBeta 2/p100)
  • phosphorylation induces a partial proteolysis of p100 to p52 by the proteasome
  • the p52 protein dimerizes with RelB to translocate into the nucleus 

53

NFAT is a transcrition factor required for the expression of genes encoding 

  • IL-2
  • IL-4
  • TNF 
  • and other cytokines

54

NFAT is activated by 

calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin

55

anergy can be induced by substimulatory levels of Ags in the absence of 

  • costimulatory signal provided by soluble cytokines
  • interactions between costimulatory receptors on T cells and counter-receptors on APCs

56

when TCR engagement (signal 1) occurs in the absence of co-stimulation, calcium-mediated signals induce the activation of NFAT only. NFAT alone elicits 

 the expression of a distint set of anergy-inducing genes

57

CD3 is composed fo three polypeptide chains (__, ___, and ___) arranged in two pairs 

  • gamma, delta, epsilon
  • two pairs ( gammaepsilon and deltaepsilon

58

what is Talin is a protein associated with

a protein associated with LFA-1 

59

PKC-sigma is associated with the 

TCR complex