Lecture 7: Neg Rft Red. Intrinsic Mot. & Creativity Flashcards Preview

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What is extrinsic motivation?

behaviour that is driven by external rewards


Behaviour is motivated by?

extrinsic motivation/external rewards such as tangible (e.g. money) and psychological (e.g. fame and praise)


***When does extrinsic reinforcement reduce intrinsic interest (i.e. time spent on a task)?

1. initial interest in the task is high
2. the rewards is tangible
3. the rewards is salient (something in the environment can catch and retain one's attention e.g. reading vs buzzing of bees)
4. the rewards is expected
5. the rewards fails to signal efficacy (capacity for producing a desired result or effect)
6. the rewards signals that the task is trivial


what does reinforcement produce



For a rft ro be successful, it should be?

1. immediate
2. contingent
3. real


This is used to create a superstitious behaviour and is used in classical conditioningq



what is used to increase creativity



what things are rewarded

Free operant


whats serves as a reward



What is task-dependent reward?

1. performance-independent
2. task completion-dependent


What is performance-dependent/quality-dependent reinforcemnt reward?

1. offering a reward can reduce aversiveness


Formula of expectancy-value theories

Expected Utility of an Action = value of goal X probability of obtaining goal


How does one calculate the Expected Utility
of Success?

EU = Ps X Us

EU = Ps X (1-Ps)

Us: (1 - Ps)


If the probability of success (Ps) is high, then the __________.
What's the formula?

the utility of success (Us) is low
formula: Us = 1 - Ps


what is an important factor in human motivation

1. estimation of succeeding or
2. what amount of control do i have over myself and my environment


to change a behaviour an individual needs to:

1. learn that the goal is valuable
2. learn that behaviour leads to the goal
3. learn that they are capable of successfully obtaining that goal with this behaviour.


what are the 2 sense of personal control?

1. processed prose
2. person praise


what is processed prose?

praise for behaviour


what is person praise?

praise for personal qualitues


*What are the differences between extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement?

e.g. Motivation to be a lawyer
intrinsic reinforcement - reward of knowing that you are doing a good job for clients and society
extrinsic reinforcement - being paid a lot of money

Intrinsic reinforcement is not dependent on anyone else -self satisfaction. satisfying an expectation i.e.internal reward (being proud of yourself)

1. extrinsic rewards - satisfying an expectation
2. intrinsic rewards - feeling of competence
Extrinsic - system of incentives to get people to work. feeling of competence i.e external reward (food)


***Why does extrinsic reinforcement reduce intrinsic motivation?

1. Over-justification theory (Lepper & Green, 1975)- people rationalise why they engage in activities
-If someone is engaging in a task w/out external reward, they may justify "I'm doing this because I enjoy it"
-if reward given, the subject may claim they are doing task for reward only, and give up when reward not given
2. self-determination/cognitive evaluation theory (Deci &Ryan, 1985)
3. Aversiness of being controlled (Ryan, 1982) - people don't like that behaviour is being controlled
4. Premackian punishment (engaging in preferred task will lead to a less preferred task)


why might quality-dependent reinforcers increase intrinsic motivation?

1. increase perceived competence/achievement
2. increase perceived self-determination
3. reduce the aversiveness of effort
4. reinforcement for minimal effort may convey task triviality
5. reward procedures requiring high performance convey a task's importance its personal or social significance

--> people may come to like task more


***What is stereotype? How does stereotype arise?

Reinforcement produces stereotypy
-reinforcing the quality of a behaviour
-rewarding pigeons if they made creative choices in a response

side note:
Repetition of speech or movement (stereotype process). Giving meaning to random 'reinforcement' (or reward)


*What is the difference between task-contingent and quality-dependant rewards?

What is task-dependent reward (Eisenberg & Cameron, 1996)?
*Performance independent
*task completion dependent

Reinforcer reinforces a quality, not a specific behaviour
(Reinforcing trying, not just turning up)


*How does one calculate the Expected Utility of Success?

Value of goal to the probability of obtaining goal


*What role does Ps have in behavioural choice?

The probability of success drives intrinsic motivation


what energy drives a behaviour?



how can reaching a goal be rewarded

1. extrinsic rewards - satisfying an expectation
2. intrinsic rewards - feeling of competence
3 affective - happiness


what is an important factor in human motivation

the estimation of succeeding