Lecture 73: Biology of Psychiatric Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 73: Biology of Psychiatric Disease Deck (20):
1

Psychiatric diagnoses are described as (one word)

Categorical

2

Two diagnostic tools for psychiatry

Clinical interview, biomarkers (limited: DNA, imaging, labs)

3

Limitations of psychiatric dx (4)

No genetic or neurobiological evidence; many patients don’t fit and can receive multiple dx; phenotype likely includes multiple disease processes; distinction between disorders arbitrary

4

Recently, the DSM has begun to focus more on ____________ than distinct disorders

Continuum

5

Limitations of biological psychiatric tx (3)

Treat symptoms (rare to cure); limited by adverse effects/placebo; no new mechanisms in decades

6

Why did the NIMH reject DSM-5 and their new platform

DSM does not reflect complexity of disorders nor does it include genetic or imaging findings; no longer funds research that relies exclusively on DSM criteria

7

What is the NIMH's new criteria called? Focus is no longer on traditional diagnostic categories, but...

Research Domain Criteria; specific domains and biological correlates (amygdala activation in anxious patients, for example)

8

T/F: Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable

True! Often up to 50%

9

Describe our current understanding of psychiatric genetics (2 main points)

Mutations in multiple genes, each with small impact on risk; genetic influences transcend traditional clinical dxs --> individual risk factors linked to a range of disorders

10

SNPs studied in psychiatric disorders associated with...

Variety of mental health disorders

11

Heritability of common SNP variants > or

Much lower (0.25 compared to 0.75); gene x environment interactions

12

Describe structural abnormalities in schizophrenia

Early and late gray matter deficits, particularly in DLPFC

13

Describe structural abnormalities in depression

Decreases in hippocampal volume in untreated depression

14

Functional neuroimaging used in social phobia to show...how about in MDD?

Hyperactive amygdala; tx response in MDD

15

Major limitations of neuroimaging approaches (4)

Small 'n'; increased/decreased activity in one brain region --> hard to determine what is abnormal, circuits > single brain regions (new studies starting to explore circuits); inconsistent results

16

Describe NT research transitions...

Research focus moved from monoamines --> receptors --> 2nd messenger/other more downstream systems

17

Hippocampal dysfunction in patients with psychiatric illnesses leads to...

Altered hippocampal neurogenesis

18

BDNF levels are affected by? Finding in depressed patients? Tx effects?

Levels of BDNF are affected by stress; low levels of BDNF found in hippocampus/PFC/serum of depressed pts; antidepressant treatment may normalize BDNF

19

Describe potential mechanisms of immune-inflammatory dysfunction in psychiatry (4)

Direct effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on monoamine levels; dysregulation of HPA axis; pathologic microglial activation; impaired neuroplasticity

20

What's a major challenge of animal models of psychiatric illnesses?

Hard to capture certain symptoms

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