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Flashcards in lecture 8 Deck (28):
1

what do we look at for the upper and lower respiratory tract

nasal exudate and masses
transtracheal and bronchoalveolar lavage
lung tissue

2

what collection technique can be used for nasal exduate and masses

have to sedate
- swab, nasal flush

3

when evaluating nasal secretions/exudate what is our primary goal

tumour, or inflammation

4

hemorrhae may occur...

RBCS and WBCS in ratio of 1 WBC for every 500 - 1000 RBCS

5

what are oropharyngeal organism

normal things found when doing a nasal flush, it just tells us its been contaminated

6

what infectious agents cause inflammation in nasal exduates

1. bacteria (cocci, bacilli)
2. viruses (herpesvirus in cats)
3. fungi (aspergillus spp)
4. parasites (Oestrus ovis)

7

what are the 3 general classifications of cell types we use when evaluating tissues for neoplasia

round, spindle, epithelial cells

8

where is mucus found

in all transtracheal and BAL specimens, even in normal animals, appears as blue to pink strands, may often be twisted

9

what is Curschmann's spirals

found in animals with chronic respiratory condition cause excessive mucus production

10

in healthy animals what should we see for cytology in transtracheal and BAL cells

1. Alveolar macrophages
2. low numbers of non-degenerate neutrophils, small lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells
3. goblet cells, ciliated and non-ciliated columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells are rare

11

what bacteria should we know in transtracheal and BAL

1. Mycobacterium spp
2. Mycoplasma spp (acid fast stain)
3. Rhodococcus spp ( pulmonary abcesses)

12

what fungi should we know in transtracheal and BAL

1. Aspergillus
2. Blastomyces
3. Coccidioides
4. Cryptococcus
5. Histoplasma
6. Pneumocystis

13

what parasites should we know in transtracheal and BAL

usually nematodse, and occasionally trematodes and Toxoplasma gondii (tachyzoites in lungs)

14

what are examples in non-infectious inflammation

hypersensitivity
COPD
EIPH

15

what should we know about hypersensitivity

>10% eosinophils, increased neutrophils and macrophages
causes = asthma, allergies, parasites

16

what should we know about COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also called inflammatory airway disease, recurrent airway disease, heaves, small airway disease
-increases in non-degenerate neutrophils along with activated macrophages and multinucleated giant cells

17

what should we know about EIPH

RBCS produce hemosiderin, hematoidin within alveolar macrophages and is an idication of chronic hemorrhage

18

what stain is used forhemosiderin

prussian blue

19

how should collected CSF be places

EDTA and serum tubes
Refridge at 4 C
within 30 min of collection

20

when does turbidity occur in CSF

more than 300 - 500 cells/ul or more bacteria, fungi, protein, and fibrin and normal CSF fluid does not clot

21

normal CSF has what cell count

low cell count (5 to 25 cells/ul)

22

CSF to count TNCC use what

hemocytometer with a neubauer ruling

23

what should we know about synovial fluid

it is very viscous because its high concentration of hyaluronic acid (mucin), and does not clot

24

EDTA is preferred for

cytological examination

25

what is heparin preferred for

for the mucin clot test because EDTA interferes with the test by degrading hyaluronic acid

26

Red tops tubes are used for

samples to be cultures

27

what tube is used for the mucin clot test

heparin top

28

what is windrowing

cells in smear aligned in a linear pattern when viscosity of synovial fluid is normal