Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (27):
1

functions of the respiratory system (5)

1. area of gas exchange between air and blood
2. protects the respiratory surfaces
3. protection against invading pathogens
4. produces sound involved in verbal communication
5. assists in regulation of blood volume, BP, body fluid pH

2

upper respiratory system consists of

nasal cavity
sinuses
pharnyx
nose

3

lower respiratory system consists of

larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli

4

-hairs in the nose called _______ block some of the inhaled debris
- nasal cavity prduces mucus to trap ebris
- sneezing will remove debris
- respiratory epithelium mucus will trap inhaled debris
- coughing wil remove debris

vibrissae

5

Air Pathway:
- air enters the external ____
- passes by the nasal vestibule
- area surrounded by the two pairs of alar cartilage
- enters the nasal ______
- air flows in and around the nasal ______
- inferior, middle, superior conchae
- as air swirls around conchae, debris is stuck in mucus
-air warms and gets ________ before entering trachea
- air enters internal ____
- air enters the ______ area

nares
cavity
conchae
humidifed
nares
nasopharynx

6

within the pharynx are several paired lymphoid organs called _____ which are large clusters of lymphatic cells and ECM that are not completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
- designed to protect pharnyx from infection with ________ cells that engulf bacteria, toxins, viruses, cancer cells, etc

tonsils
phagocytic

7

nasopharynx only a passageway for air because located above the point of food entry into mouth
- pendulous _____ hangs from middle portion of soft palate, during swallowing, the sort palate and uvula are lifted to block the nasal cavity and prevent food from entering
- contains _________ ______ (aka adenoids) in posterior region

uvula
pharyngeal tonsils

8

the _________ sets of tonsils is the first line of defence against ingested or inhaled foreign materials

oropharynx

9

___________ (lowest porti of pharnyx) at this point, the respiratory and digestive systems become distinct, inhaled air into larynx and swalllowed food and liquid into esophagus

laryngopharnyx

10

4 cartilagegs of the larynx

1. thyroid
- contains laryngeal prominence (adams apple) attached to hyoid bonne by thyrohyoid membrane)
2. cricooid
- ring shaped hyaline attached to larynx to trachea
3. epiglottis
4. laryngeal cartilages
- role in opeing and closing the glottis

11

some laryngeal ligaments become the _____ ____

vocal cords

12

INTRINSIC laryngeal ligaments bind the 9 laryngeal cartilages together to form the ______

larynx

13

EXTRINSIC laryngeal ligaments bind the thyroid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone and ______ cartilage

cricoid

14

how is there sound productin by the vocal cords?

hint
- air passing between...
- pitch depends on..
- amplification of sound occurs in ....
- production of definite sounds depends on....

air passing between the vocal cords create sound, when we breathe the vocal cords stay open, when we talk, the vocal cords come together via pivoting of the arytenoids cartilages
- pitch depends on diameter, length, tension in vocal cords
- aplification of sound occurs in the sinus cavities, oral, nasal cavities, pharynx
- production of definite sounds depends on movement of lips, tongue, cheeks

15

how does voice change with age/males?

children have slender, short vocal folds, creating a high pitch sound
at puberty, vocal cords of males become thicker and longer, thus producing a deeper voice than females

16

_______ ligaments connect one cartilage ring to another in the trachea

annular

17

trachea lining consists of what 3 compoenets?

respiratoy epithelia
lamina propria
submucuosa (thick layer of connective tissue surrounding the mucosa)

18

which muscle allows for constriciton and dilation of the trachea?

trachialis muscle

19

the left and right primary bronchi branch off the trachea at the area of the ______

carina

20

why can children aspirate foreign objects into the right lung easier than the left lung?

the right primary bronchi is stteeper and larrger in diamter than the left

21

each primary bronchus will enter the lung at the point called ____

hilum which is also the point of entrance and exit of the pulmonary blood vessels

22

each tertiary bronchus goes to a speciic lung area called a _____________ segment

bronchopumonary segment

23

bronchioles are self supporting so dont need cartilage plates
- consist of _____ muscle for bronchodilation (sympathetic stimulation) and bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic stimulation)
bronicholes terminate with clusters of _______ sacs

smooth
alveolar

24

alveoli lining conssists of a single layer of _______ cells (type 1)
- type 2 __________ are scattered among the type 1 pneumocytes
- type 2 secrete ______ which prevents alveolar collpase
- alveolar macrophages wander around phagocytized particulate matter

squamous
pneumocytes
surfactant

25

how does gas exchange occur at the alveoli?

pulmonary arteries transport CO to the alveolar capillaries
CO leaves the capillaries and enters the alveolar sacs
O2 leaves the alveolar sacs and enters the capillaries
O2 enters the pulmonary veins and returns to the heart to be pumped to al the parts of the body

26

each lung is lined by a _______ membrane

serous

27

______ pleura covers outer surface of the lung
______ pleura covers inside lining of thoracic wall
space between is ______ cavity which consists of pleural fluid and reduces friction during inhalation and exhalation

visceral
parietal
pleural