Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (27):
functions of the respiratory system (5)
1. area of gas exchange between air and blood
2. protects the respiratory surfaces
3. protection against invading pathogens
4. produces sound involved in verbal communication
5. assists in regulation of blood volume, BP, body fluid pH
upper respiratory system consists of
lower respiratory system consists of
-hairs in the nose called _______ block some of the inhaled debris
- nasal cavity prduces mucus to trap ebris
- sneezing will remove debris
- respiratory epithelium mucus will trap inhaled debris
- coughing wil remove debris
- air enters the external ____
- passes by the nasal vestibule
- area surrounded by the two pairs of alar cartilage
- enters the nasal ______
- air flows in and around the nasal ______
- inferior, middle, superior conchae
- as air swirls around conchae, debris is stuck in mucus
-air warms and gets ________ before entering trachea
- air enters internal ____
- air enters the ______ area
within the pharynx are several paired lymphoid organs called _____ which are large clusters of lymphatic cells and ECM that are not completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
- designed to protect pharnyx from infection with ________ cells that engulf bacteria, toxins, viruses, cancer cells, etc
nasopharynx only a passageway for air because located above the point of food entry into mouth
- pendulous _____ hangs from middle portion of soft palate, during swallowing, the sort palate and uvula are lifted to block the nasal cavity and prevent food from entering
- contains _________ ______ (aka adenoids) in posterior region
the _________ sets of tonsils is the first line of defence against ingested or inhaled foreign materials
___________ (lowest porti of pharnyx) at this point, the respiratory and digestive systems become distinct, inhaled air into larynx and swalllowed food and liquid into esophagus
4 cartilagegs of the larynx
- contains laryngeal prominence (adams apple) attached to hyoid bonne by thyrohyoid membrane)
- ring shaped hyaline attached to larynx to trachea
4. laryngeal cartilages
- role in opeing and closing the glottis
some laryngeal ligaments become the _____ ____
INTRINSIC laryngeal ligaments bind the 9 laryngeal cartilages together to form the ______
EXTRINSIC laryngeal ligaments bind the thyroid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone and ______ cartilage
how is there sound productin by the vocal cords?
- air passing between...
- pitch depends on..
- amplification of sound occurs in ....
- production of definite sounds depends on....
air passing between the vocal cords create sound, when we breathe the vocal cords stay open, when we talk, the vocal cords come together via pivoting of the arytenoids cartilages
- pitch depends on diameter, length, tension in vocal cords
- aplification of sound occurs in the sinus cavities, oral, nasal cavities, pharynx
- production of definite sounds depends on movement of lips, tongue, cheeks
how does voice change with age/males?
children have slender, short vocal folds, creating a high pitch sound
at puberty, vocal cords of males become thicker and longer, thus producing a deeper voice than females
_______ ligaments connect one cartilage ring to another in the trachea
trachea lining consists of what 3 compoenets?
submucuosa (thick layer of connective tissue surrounding the mucosa)
which muscle allows for constriciton and dilation of the trachea?
the left and right primary bronchi branch off the trachea at the area of the ______
why can children aspirate foreign objects into the right lung easier than the left lung?
the right primary bronchi is stteeper and larrger in diamter than the left
each primary bronchus will enter the lung at the point called ____
hilum which is also the point of entrance and exit of the pulmonary blood vessels
each tertiary bronchus goes to a speciic lung area called a _____________ segment
bronchioles are self supporting so dont need cartilage plates
- consist of _____ muscle for bronchodilation (sympathetic stimulation) and bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic stimulation)
bronicholes terminate with clusters of _______ sacs
alveoli lining conssists of a single layer of _______ cells (type 1)
- type 2 __________ are scattered among the type 1 pneumocytes
- type 2 secrete ______ which prevents alveolar collpase
- alveolar macrophages wander around phagocytized particulate matter
how does gas exchange occur at the alveoli?
pulmonary arteries transport CO to the alveolar capillaries
CO leaves the capillaries and enters the alveolar sacs
O2 leaves the alveolar sacs and enters the capillaries
O2 enters the pulmonary veins and returns to the heart to be pumped to al the parts of the body
each lung is lined by a _______ membrane