Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Blood & Lymph Deck (62):
water, proteins, electrolytes, nutrients, gases
Plasma - clotting factors
What are the three formed elements?
RBS, WBC, Thrompocytes (platelets)
Volume of packed RBCs in a sample of blood. % of RBCs compared with the whole blood volume. Men: 39-50%, Women: 35-45%
How do you prepare blood smears?
Don’t need to fix. A drop of blood is placed directly on the slide, spread, air-dried, and stained with methylene blue, azures, and eosin. See majority RBCs, will see some WBCs (mainly neutrophils)
Where are RBCs broken down?
Macrophages in the spleen
Spectrin is the most important cytoskeleton protein. + actin, glycophorin, and tromomyosin.
If RBC has wrong shape...
must be something wrong with the cytoskeleton proteins.
How red/white blood cells develop! Includes erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis
Monophyletic Theory of Hemopoiesis
One cell is the precursor to all blood cells = pluripotential stem cell (PPSC). CD34+ is the most common marker of these pluripotential stem cells.
What are the morphologic criteria of hemopoiesis? (Criteria that decides at what stage the blood cells are during development)
1. Cell size
2. Nuclear appearance
3. Products of differentiation
Cell Size and Hemopoiesis
mature cells are smaller
Nuclear Appearance and Hemopoiesis
In more mature cells, there is more heterochromatin (already mature! No need to produce much for growth), nucleolus disappears, and nuclear lobulation (gives certain characteristics for identification). In RBC, additionally, nucleus is lost.
Products of Differentiation and Hemopoiesis
Cytoplasmic granules are developed during granulocyte development. Accumulation of hemoglobin in RBC (more eosinophlic)
______ will be most prevalent when rER is active (producing hemoglobin)
When hemoglobin accumulates in cell, cytoplasm will get more ____.
very big nucleus and rarely any cytoplasm
deep blue nucleus from al lthe protein production to accumulation hemoglobin; rER!
less blue, more cytoplasm
nucleus gets very condensed to leave!
NO NUC so no longer “blast” but “cyte” (more mature)! But cytoplasm is still blue/basinophilic (rER and proteins).
neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
What is the most common to the least common?
Neutrophil - Common Characteristics
Multilobed or banded nuclei. Most common WBC and main inflammatory cell; much bigger than erythrocytes. They can phagocytosis, have azurophilic granules (lysosomes and other bacteriostatic agents to limit bacteria growth). (virus is by lymphocytes)
-Motile cells; first wave or primary response cells to enter tissue damage area (monocytes enter as secondary response)
Lymphocytes - Common Characteristics
main functional cells of lymphatic or immune system. No granules. Very round, large dense nucleus—barely any cytoplasm. Similar size as a RBC
Basophils - Common Characteristics
for allergy and inflammation; characterized by large basophilic granules that contain heparan sulfate, histamine, and leukotrines. Least common WBC.
-Similar to mast cells; they both release vasoactive agents associated with hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis
Eosinophils - Common Characteristics
Bilobed nucleus with large, eosinophilc (red/orange) granules – contain histaminase, arylsulfatase, collagenase. For parasitic infections (as well as allergy and inflammation) – gets rid of allergic reactions
-Also participate in immune response = Phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complex
Monocytes - Common Characteristics
Largest WBC with kidney-shaped (indented) nucleus. NO granules.
-Travel from bone marrow to body tissues to differentiate into various phagocytes
-Transform into macrophages: eat something and present antigen on surface to alert others; B cells can attack it.
Three types of lymphocytes
T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, NK Cells
Where are T Cells differentiated?
What type of immunity do T Cells demonstrate?
Cell-mediated (does not involve antibodies)
What type of immunity do B cells demonstrate?
B Cells differentiate into...
plasma cells and memory B cells
What are the only things that can migrate back and forth from blood to CT?
Two cells of the adaptive immune system?
T and B lymphocytes
NK Cells make up the
innate immune system (defends agains tumors and virus)
What do NK cells recognize?
changes of surface molecule called MHC
What are NK cells activated in response to?
Blood Vessel Types
Arteries, veins, capillaries
Types of arteries
elastic, muscular, arterioles (largest to smallest)
Types of veins
Large, med and venules
Types of capillaries
continuous fenestrated and sinusioidal
innermost layer. Consists of single endothelium layer with basal lamina, a very thin subendothelial layer of loose CT, and an internal elastic lamina (in arteries)
middle layer. NO FIBROBLASTS. Consists mainly of smooth muscle. Has elastic and reticular fibers (in arteries) and external elastic lamina (in large arteries). Pericytes replace tunic media in capillaries. Very pink and dense layer.
Loose CT (type I collagen). Has nerves, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. “White”
Aortic wall infiltrated by blood; which part of the aorta is this blood most likely contained?
Tunica media (lots of muscle layers!) = Aortic dissection!
Example of elastic artery
no elastic lamina; have up to 8 layers of smooth muscle in their tunica media. Very thin!
Distinguish from small arteries by number of smooth muscle layers in the tunica media. Arterioles have only 1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle.
Which is responsible for maintaining blood pressure?
Very narrow – wide enough to fit a single RBC. Consist of a single layer of endothelial cells and their basal lamina. This walls allow passage of fluids, gases, metabolites, and waste.
A CT cell that can differentiation into fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells
(RIGHT) Capillaries between skeletal muscle cells. Notice the nuclei (dark and white mixed together = eu and hetero!) in the periphery!
in muscle, CT, nerve tissues, and exocrine glands. Contain pinocytic vesicles (involved in endocytosis)
In kidney, intestine, and endocrine glands. Fenestrations make it easier to transport things through capillary walls.
In liver, BM, and spleen. Large gaps in basal lamina and endothelium. Things easily pass through membrane.
What do lymphatic vessels not have?
basal lamina - easier transport of fluids. Endothelium and pericytes only.
Wider than capillary but less smooth muscle than an arteriole; major site of vascular leakage – In inflammation this is the site of massive movement of leukocytes from the blood into the tissue.
Relatively thin tunica media. Lots of adventitia
Veins vs Arteris
Arteries have more layers of the tunica media while veins have thicker layer of adventitia and a larger lumen.