Lecture 8 - Blood & Lymph Flashcards Preview

Histology (Emily) > Lecture 8 - Blood & Lymph > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Blood & Lymph Deck (62):
1

Plasma contains

water, proteins, electrolytes, nutrients, gases

2

Serum

Plasma - clotting factors

3

What are the three formed elements?

RBS, WBC, Thrompocytes (platelets)

4

Hematocrit

Volume of packed RBCs in a sample of blood. % of RBCs compared with the whole blood volume. Men: 39-50%, Women: 35-45%

5

How do you prepare blood smears?

Don’t need to fix. A drop of blood is placed directly on the slide, spread, air-dried, and stained with methylene blue, azures, and eosin. See majority RBCs, will see some WBCs (mainly neutrophils)

6

Where are RBCs broken down?

Macrophages in the spleen

7

Spectrin

Spectrin is the most important cytoskeleton protein. + actin, glycophorin, and tromomyosin.

8

If RBC has wrong shape...

must be something wrong with the cytoskeleton proteins.

9

Hemopoiesis

How red/white blood cells develop! Includes erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis

10

Monophyletic Theory of Hemopoiesis

One cell is the precursor to all blood cells = pluripotential stem cell (PPSC). CD34+ is the most common marker of these pluripotential stem cells.

11

What are the morphologic criteria of hemopoiesis? (Criteria that decides at what stage the blood cells are during development)

1. Cell size
2. Nuclear appearance
3. Products of differentiation

12

Cell Size and Hemopoiesis

mature cells are smaller

13

Nuclear Appearance and Hemopoiesis

In more mature cells, there is more heterochromatin (already mature! No need to produce much for growth), nucleolus disappears, and nuclear lobulation (gives certain characteristics for identification). In RBC, additionally, nucleus is lost.

14

Products of Differentiation and Hemopoiesis

Cytoplasmic granules are developed during granulocyte development. Accumulation of hemoglobin in RBC (more eosinophlic)

15

ERYTHROPOIESIS
______ will be most prevalent when rER is active (producing hemoglobin)

Basophilic cytoplasm

16

ERYTHROPOIESIS
When hemoglobin accumulates in cell, cytoplasm will get more ____.

Eosinophilic

17

Proerythroblast

very big nucleus and rarely any cytoplasm

18

Basophilic

deep blue nucleus from al lthe protein production to accumulation hemoglobin; rER!

19

Polychromatophillic

less blue, more cytoplasm

20

Orthochromatophilic

nucleus gets very condensed to leave!

21

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte

NO NUC so no longer “blast” but “cyte” (more mature)! But cytoplasm is still blue/basinophilic (rER and proteins).

22

Ertythrocyte

mature, eosinophilic!

23

Granulocytes

neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

24

Agranulogytes

lymphocyte, monocyte

25

What is the most common to the least common?

Neutrophil
Lymphocyte
Monocyte
Eosinophil
Basophil

26

Neutrophil - Common Characteristics

Multilobed or banded nuclei. Most common WBC and main inflammatory cell; much bigger than erythrocytes. They can phagocytosis, have azurophilic granules (lysosomes and other bacteriostatic agents to limit bacteria growth). (virus is by lymphocytes)

-Motile cells; first wave or primary response cells to enter tissue damage area (monocytes enter as secondary response)

27

Lymphocytes - Common Characteristics

main functional cells of lymphatic or immune system. No granules. Very round, large dense nucleus—barely any cytoplasm. Similar size as a RBC

28

Basophils - Common Characteristics

for allergy and inflammation; characterized by large basophilic granules that contain heparan sulfate, histamine, and leukotrines. Least common WBC.
-Similar to mast cells; they both release vasoactive agents associated with hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis

29

Eosinophils - Common Characteristics

Bilobed nucleus with large, eosinophilc (red/orange) granules – contain histaminase, arylsulfatase, collagenase. For parasitic infections (as well as allergy and inflammation) – gets rid of allergic reactions
-Also participate in immune response = Phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complex

30

Monocytes - Common Characteristics

Largest WBC with kidney-shaped (indented) nucleus. NO granules.
-Travel from bone marrow to body tissues to differentiate into various phagocytes
-Transform into macrophages: eat something and present antigen on surface to alert others; B cells can attack it.

31

Three types of lymphocytes

T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, NK Cells

32

Where are T Cells differentiated?

thymus

33

What type of immunity do T Cells demonstrate?

Cell-mediated (does not involve antibodies)

34

What type of immunity do B cells demonstrate?

humoral-mediated immunity

35

B Cells differentiate into...

plasma cells and memory B cells

36

What are the only things that can migrate back and forth from blood to CT?

Lymphocytes

37

Two cells of the adaptive immune system?

T and B lymphocytes

38

NK Cells make up the

innate immune system (defends agains tumors and virus)

39

What do NK cells recognize?

changes of surface molecule called MHC

40

What are NK cells activated in response to?

Interferons (cytokines)

41

Blood Vessel Types

Arteries, veins, capillaries

42

Types of arteries

elastic, muscular, arterioles (largest to smallest)

43

Types of veins

Large, med and venules

44

Types of capillaries

continuous fenestrated and sinusioidal

45

Tunica Intima

innermost layer. Consists of single endothelium layer with basal lamina, a very thin subendothelial layer of loose CT, and an internal elastic lamina (in arteries)

46

Tunica Media

middle layer. NO FIBROBLASTS. Consists mainly of smooth muscle. Has elastic and reticular fibers (in arteries) and external elastic lamina (in large arteries). Pericytes replace tunic media in capillaries. Very pink and dense layer.

47

Tunica Adventitia

Loose CT (type I collagen). Has nerves, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. “White”

48

Aortic wall infiltrated by blood; which part of the aorta is this blood most likely contained?

Tunica media (lots of muscle layers!) = Aortic dissection!

49

Example of elastic artery

aorta

50

Small artery

no elastic lamina; have up to 8 layers of smooth muscle in their tunica media. Very thin!

51

Arterioles

Distinguish from small arteries by number of smooth muscle layers in the tunica media. Arterioles have only 1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle.

52

Which is responsible for maintaining blood pressure?

Arterioles

53

Capillaries

Very narrow – wide enough to fit a single RBC. Consist of a single layer of endothelial cells and their basal lamina. This walls allow passage of fluids, gases, metabolites, and waste.

54

pericytes

A CT cell that can differentiation into fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells
(RIGHT) Capillaries between skeletal muscle cells. Notice the nuclei (dark and white mixed together = eu and hetero!) in the periphery!

55

Continuous Capillary

in muscle, CT, nerve tissues, and exocrine glands. Contain pinocytic vesicles (involved in endocytosis)

56

Fenestrated Capillary

In kidney, intestine, and endocrine glands. Fenestrations make it easier to transport things through capillary walls.

57

Sinusoidal Capillary

In liver, BM, and spleen. Large gaps in basal lamina and endothelium. Things easily pass through membrane.

58

What do lymphatic vessels not have?

basal lamina - easier transport of fluids. Endothelium and pericytes only.

59

Venules

Wider than capillary but less smooth muscle than an arteriole; major site of vascular leakage – In inflammation this is the site of massive movement of leukocytes from the blood into the tissue.

60

Medium/Large Veins

Relatively thin tunica media. Lots of adventitia

61

Veins vs Arteris

Arteries have more layers of the tunica media while veins have thicker layer of adventitia and a larger lumen.

62

Redness and swelling from burn is caused by what?

Mast Cells! They induce vascular response.