Flashcards in Lecture 8: Peace of Westphalia (and Background) Deck (10):
Major Periods of European Escalation (4)
- 30 years war (17th cen)
- Revolutionary/Napoleonic (19th cen)
- WW1 (20th cen)
- WW2 (20th cen)
No 'extreme' wars in between; enormous jumps. Why was extreme war only occasional?
- realism doesn't fully explain picture
- why would you fight if you can't predict victory?
30 Years' War's 4 periods of conflict
Its historical background
Bohemian historical background
- Bohemian (local)
- Danish (local)
- Swedish (intl)
- French (intl)
Background --> breakup of religious unity in continent; effects of reformation (14th cen)
Protestant/Catholic divide; fundamental division of worldviews
Bohemia --> Protestant majority with Catholic ruler
- Peace of Ausburg (1555) + Letter of Majesty (1609) not fully respected.
Phase 1: Bohemian phase (1618-1625)
- major event
- major battle
Defenestration of Prague (1618) --> Emperor Ferdinand sends 2 Catholic messengers to reconcile with protestants; fails. they throw them out a window
Battle of White Mountain; Emperor battles with Protestant masses, DECISIVE CATHOLIC VICTORY.
Phase 2: Danish Phase (1625-1630)
- HRE, mercenary
King of Denmark (Christian IV) enters in 1625
HRE (Catholics) hire Protestant Mercenary Albrecht von Wallenstein to fight for them - DECISIVE CATHOLIC VICTORY.
Edict of Restitution (1629) --> orders all Protestant-converted churches, institutions to be restored back under Catholic control.
Phase 3: Swedish Phase (1630 - 1635)
- Swedish King
- continental war
- Gustavus Adolphus (Swedish King, military commander) --> father of modern warfare.
- defends protestant cause; his death on battlefield.
- decisive victory for Swedes/Protestants
- Swedish funded by French (balance of power poli)
Phase 4: French Phase (1635-1648)
- France helping Protestants > Catholics b/c of balance of power considerations
- potions of politik > religion
- France threatened by growing power of Spain / House of Habsburg (HRE)'s European domination
- results --> inconclusive.
Peace of Westphalia
- 2 main effects regarding religion
- Germany, HRE, Calvinism/religion, etc.
2 main effects:
- religion taken out of politics
- religion of states follows religion of ruler
- rise of Prussia
- fragmentation of Germany; therefore bckwards
- Swiss independence, France gets Alsace
- Calvinism accepted + freedom of private worship established
Europe in 17th cen - Period of Escalation
- sociological contribution to realism --> analysis of 17th cen states
Escalation due to...
1) state capacity; states were very fragile, couldn't collect taxes, crises, power of nobility (kings lacked total power; ex. House of Guise of France fighting for Spanish Catholics)
2) Heterogeneity; period of enormous heterogeneity b/c of differential struggle for ideological, immanent power