Lecture 8: Peace of Westphalia (and Background) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8: Peace of Westphalia (and Background) Deck (10):

Major Periods of European Escalation (4)

- 30 years war (17th cen)
- Revolutionary/Napoleonic (19th cen)
- WW1 (20th cen)
- WW2 (20th cen)


No 'extreme' wars in between; enormous jumps. Why was extreme war only occasional?

- realism doesn't fully explain picture
- why would you fight if you can't predict victory?


30 Years' War's 4 periods of conflict

Its historical background

Bohemian historical background

- Bohemian (local)
- Danish (local)
- Swedish (intl)
- French (intl)

Background --> breakup of religious unity in continent; effects of reformation (14th cen)

Protestant/Catholic divide; fundamental division of worldviews

Bohemia --> Protestant majority with Catholic ruler
- Peace of Ausburg (1555) + Letter of Majesty (1609) not fully respected.


Phase 1: Bohemian phase (1618-1625)
- major event
- major battle

Bohemian -->

Defenestration of Prague (1618) --> Emperor Ferdinand sends 2 Catholic messengers to reconcile with protestants; fails. they throw them out a window

Battle of White Mountain; Emperor battles with Protestant masses, DECISIVE CATHOLIC VICTORY.


Phase 2: Danish Phase (1625-1630)
- King
- HRE, mercenary
- Edict

King of Denmark (Christian IV) enters in 1625

HRE (Catholics) hire Protestant Mercenary Albrecht von Wallenstein to fight for them - DECISIVE CATHOLIC VICTORY.

Edict of Restitution (1629) --> orders all Protestant-converted churches, institutions to be restored back under Catholic control.


Phase 3: Swedish Phase (1630 - 1635)
- Swedish King
- results

- continental war
- Gustavus Adolphus (Swedish King, military commander) --> father of modern warfare.
- defends protestant cause; his death on battlefield.
- decisive victory for Swedes/Protestants
- Swedish funded by French (balance of power poli)


Phase 4: French Phase (1635-1648)
- politik
- results

- France helping Protestants > Catholics b/c of balance of power considerations
- potions of politik > religion
- France threatened by growing power of Spain / House of Habsburg (HRE)'s European domination
- results --> inconclusive.


Peace of Westphalia
- effects
- 2 main effects regarding religion
- Germany, HRE, Calvinism/religion, etc.

2 main effects:
- religion taken out of politics
- religion of states follows religion of ruler

Other effects
- rise of Prussia
- fragmentation of Germany; therefore bckwards
- Swiss independence, France gets Alsace
- Calvinism accepted + freedom of private worship established


Europe in 17th cen - Period of Escalation

- sociological contribution to realism --> analysis of 17th cen states

Escalation due to...

1) state capacity; states were very fragile, couldn't collect taxes, crises, power of nobility (kings lacked total power; ex. House of Guise of France fighting for Spanish Catholics)

2) Heterogeneity; period of enormous heterogeneity b/c of differential struggle for ideological, immanent power


Europe in late 17th/Early 18th. Cen - Period of De-Escalation

2 sociological dimension applied;
- BOP/diplomacy
- Fredrick the Great
- state capacity (2 examples)

De-Escalation due to

- age of endless diplomacy
1) state capacity grew immensely; agricultural revolution + Louis XIV, Versailles (centralization of power, elites under monarch)

2) heterogeneity; more agreeing on religion not being an issue to be fought over.