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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (14):
1

Types of Glands Based on Development

  1. What kind of cells compose glandular tissue?
  2. Unicellular vs multicellular glands. 

 

  1. Epithelial cells specialized for a secretory function
  2. Cells may be incorporated within the epithelial layer (unicellular glands) or they may grown down into the underlying connective tissue (multicellular glands)

2

Types of Glands Based on Development: Exocrine Glands

  1. How as an exocrine gland formed?
  2. What are some examples of exocrine glands?
  3. How do exocrine glands secrete their product?

 

  1. When the eipthelial layer grows down into the underlying connective tissue, it remains connected to the originating epithelial layer
  2. salivary, mammary, sweat, sebaceous, liver, pancreas.
  3. Via a duct derived from the original connection to the epithelial layer

3

Types of Glands Based on Development: Endocrine Glands

  1. How are endocrine glands formed?
  2. Examples?
  3. Where do endocrine glands secrete their product?

 

 

  1. When the epithelial layer grows down into the underlying connective tissue, the down growth may degenerate, leaving the secretory tissue isolated from the parent epithelial tissue
  2. Pituitary, thyroid, pineal, parathyroid, adrenals, gonads, liver, pancreas
  3. Secreted into surrounding blood vessels

4

Types of Glands Based on Development

  1. General summary of exocrine glands
  2. General summary of endocrine glands
  3. Endocrine glands lack what?

 

  1. Epithelial outgrowths that retain connection to overlying epithelium
  2. Epithelial outgrowths that lose their connection to the overlying epithelium
  3. Ducts!

5

Terms Related to Secretion

  1. How is exocrine secretion done?
  2. How is endocrine secretion done?
  3. How is paracrine secretion done?
  4. How is autocrine secretion done?

 

  1. Secretory product is transported via duct system often to lumen or organ surface
  2. Secretory product (hormone) is directly released into the blood
  3. Secretion affects neighboring cells
  4. Secretion affects the cell that released it

6

Classification of Glands

  1. What criteria can glands be calssified by?

 

  1. Unicellular vs multicellular, presence of branching, shape of secretory portion

7

Classification of Glands: Number of cells

  1. Unicellular examples
  2. Multicellular examples

 

  1. Goblect cells (exocrine), mucous cells of stomach (exocrine), enteroendocrine cells (endocrine)
  2. most other endocrine and exocrine glands

8

Classification of Glands: Ductal Branching

  1. Simple multicellar glands
  2. Compound multicellular glands

 

  1. Do not exhibit ductal branching
  2. Have ductal branching

9

Classification of Glands: Based on Secretory Portion

  1. Tubular types and examples

 

  1. Straight (crypts of Lieberkuhn in large intestine
  2. Coiled (sweat glands)
  3. Branched (fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach)

10

Classification of Glands: Based on Secretory Portion

  1. Alveolar examples

 

  1. Meibomian glands of eyelids
  2. sebaceous glands of skin

11

Classification of Glands: Based on Secretory Portion

  1. Tubuloalveolar examples

 

  1. Salivary glands
  2. Brunner's glands of duodenum
  3. Mucous glands of esophagus

12

Multicellular Gland Classification

  1. Simple excretory duct includes which possible shapes?
  2. Compound excretory duct includes which possible shapes?

 

  1. Tubular, Coiled, Tubular branched, Acinar/alveolar
  2. Branched tubular, branched alveolar (acinar), branched tubuloalveolar (-acinar)

13

Classification of Glands by Secretion Composition

  1. Serous secretions
  2. Mucous secretions
  3. Mixed (serous-mucous) secretions

 

  1. Watery and enzyme-filled
  2. Thick, mucin-containing
  3. Combination of both

14

Classification of Glands by Secretion Mechanism

  1. Merocrine (eccrine)
  2. Apocrine
  3. Holocrine

 

  1. Secretory product is stored in membrane-bound vesicles and cytoplasm is retrieved in exocytosis/endocytosis. MAIN THING - cell is not damaged in secretion. Includes most glands
  2. Apical cytoplasm is released along with secretory product. Part of the cell disintegrates
  3. Entire cell is released as part of secretory product. Sebaceous glands.