Lecture 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (23):
1

What percentage of height do you gain from birth to age 1?

50%

2

What percentage of height do you gain from birth to age 2?

75%

3

How long do babies gain "baby fat" for?

About 9 months, and then they slim out.

4

What are the two growth trends?

Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal

5

What is cephalocaudal? (growth trend)

"Head to tail." Lower part of the body grows later than the head.

6

What is proximodistal? (growth trend)

"Near to far." Extremities grow later than head, neck and trunk.

7

How many neurons does the human brain have that store and transmit information?

100-200 billion

8

At birth, the _____ is the closest to adult size than any other physical structure.

Brain

9

How do neutrons send messages in the brain?

By releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters

10

Programmed cell death

Check in text

11

What is lateralization?

Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

12

What does the left hemisphere of the brain do best?

Processing information in a sequential, analytic way.

13

What does the right hemisphere of the brain do best?

Best at processing information in a holistic, integrative manner.

14

In highly plastic cerebral cortex, many areas of the brain are not yet what?

Committed to one function; consequently, the cortex has a high capacity for learning.

15

What happens if there are injuries to the cerebral cortex from before birth (or in the first six months) with language?

Language is delayed to about 3.5 years of age

16

What happened by age 5 with language? (with damaged cerebral cortex's)

The children caught up in grammatical and vocabulary skills (the undamaged area of the brain) either hemisphere, had taken over the language function.

17

Why do spatial skills show more impairment after a brain injury?

Likely because spatial processing is more lateralized at birth.

18

Can brain plasticity occur later in adulthood? Example?

Yes. E.g., stroke victims.

19

What happens when there is early, extreme sensory deprivation?

Results in permanent brain damage and loss of function.

20

What happens to babies born with cataracts in both eyes who have corrective surgery within 4-6 months?

Show rapid improvement in vision. The longer the surgery is postponed, the less complete the recovery of visual skills.

21

What was shown in children who were adopted from Romanian orphanages?

Before 6 months, they showed dramatic cognitive and physical gains.

22

What was shown in children who were adopted from orphanages AFTER 6 months?

Serious intellectual deficits.

23

What happens to babies in deprived orphanage environments?

Disrupts the brain's ability to manage stress, with long-term consequences.