Lecture 9 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Lecture 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (50):
1

7 functions of the digestive system?

1. ingestion
- ringing food and liquids into mouth
2. mechanical processing
- chewing n swallowing
3. digestion
- chemical breakdown of food into nutrient
4. secretion
- secretion of products by linig of digestive tract and by accessory organs of digestion
5. absorption
- movement of nutrients from the small intestine to the boodstream
6. excretion
- removal of waste products from digestive tract
7. compaction
- progressive dehydration of organic wastes

2

differences in function of the small and large intestines?

small
- enzymatic breakdown of food
- absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream

large
- removes solid waste
- reabsorbs water into bloodstream to prevent ehydration
- houses bacteria that produce vitamin K for blood clotting processes

3

4 major layers of the digestive tract

1. muscosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis externa
4. serosa

4

_____ in the mucosa increase surface area for increased absorption

pilcae

5

peristalsis is when the _______ ____ propels material through the digestive tract
__________ is when material is churned and fragmented and propelled through digestive tract

muscularis externa
segmentation

6

what are the 3 pairs of salivary glands

parotid
sublingual
submandibular

all produces salivary amylase which partially digests carbs

7

the esophagus passes through the diaphragm by the ________ ____

esophageal hiatus

8

histology of stomach

lamina propria

layer of loose connective tissue directly beneath epithelium of mucous membranes

9

histology of stomach

gastric pits

produce cells to continously replace lost stomach cells

10

histology of stomach

mucous neck cells

produces mucous to lubricate food entering the stomach cells

11

histology of stomach

mucous surface cells

makes copious amounts of mucus to protect lining of stomach

12

histology of stomach

parietal cells

HCL and intrinsic factor

13

histology of stomach

intrinsic factor

facilitates absorbs vitamin b12 from small intestine which helps for erythopoisis

14

histology of stomach

HCl

kills microorganisms and activates pepsinogen ( turns into pepsin)

15

histology of stomach

chief cells

secretes pepsinogen

16

histology of stomach

enterroendocrirne cells

stomach cells that produce hormones

17

histology of stomach

G cells

produce gastrin hormmone which causes the parietal and chief cells to release their products

18

duodenum of the small intestine receives digestive enzymes n bile from....

the pancreas, bile from liver and gallbladder

19

each plica consists of numerous ________
within each villus there are _________ so the villi will sbosorb the digested nutrients from the lumen of the smll intestine into the capillaries

microvilli
capillaries

20

______ ____
- in base of villi
- new apeithelial cells formed here
- contain enteroendocrine cells that produce ________ (stimualtes the contraction of gallbladder thus releasing stored bile into duodenumé secrection of enzymes by exocrine pancreas) and _____ (stimulates pancreatic buffer secretin and inhibits gastric activity causing liver to make bile)

intestinal crypts
cholecystokinin
secretin

21

each villus also has _____ which absorb material that cannot be absorbed by capillaries bc too big

lacteals

22

wall of fthe colon has puches that allow for expansion called ______

haustra

23

longitudinal muscles called ______ ___ aid in the process of peristalsis

taeniae coli

24

the serosa of large intestine has numerous flaps of sacs of fat attached called ________ appendices

omental

25

the liver is involved in
_________ regulation
___________ regulation
____ production

metabolic
hematological
bile

26

________ will adjust the circulating metabolites before the blood enters into systemic circulation

hepatocytes

27

____ is the largest blood reservoir of the body

liver

28

what do phagocytes and liver cells do as blood passes through the liver

phagocytes
- remove old or damaged RBC

liver cells
- make plasma proteins for clotting

29

Bile
made by..
stored by..
secreted into..
emulsifies ..

liver cells
gallbladder
into duoenum when needed
fat which make it easierfor lipase to do the actual digestion of fat

30

the liver is divided into sections called ____ whch are separated by the interlobular septum

lobules

31

the center of each lobule consists of a vein from the ______ _____ system

hepatic portal

32

spaces are created between the lines of hepatocytes, called ______
which consists of capillaries and kupffer cells (phagocytes of liver)

sinusoids

33

what creates the hepatic triad

hepatic portal vein
bile duct
hepatic arttery proper

34

describe bile secretion and transport process

hepatocytes make bile
bile enters bile canaculi
bile travels to bile ducts
bile collects in the left and riht hepatic ducts
bile travels thru common hepatic duct
bile can travel thru common duct to duodenum or travel thru cyst duct into gallbladder for storage

35

describe gallbladder storage

when hepatopancreatic sphincter is closed:
- bile enters cystic duct n into the gallbladder
- water is removed from bile so bile concentration is higher
- if food entering the small intestine is high in fat content, the small intestine cells will release cholecystokinin which causes gall bladde rto release bile

36

how much bile can gallbladder store

40-70ml

37

describe regulation of panceatic secretion
- cholecystokinin and secretin

cholesytokinin from the small intestine will casue the pancreas to release its digestive enzymes
secretin from the small intestine will casue the panreas to release buffers
- when food leaves the stomack n enters the duodenum, the hcyme is mixed with acid in the stomach therefor acidic chyme is entering the duodenum
- buffers used to maintain a normal pH of 7 or 8

38

urinary functions (5)

regulates water n electrolyte balance
regulate blood volume n BP
stabilizes blood pH
conservation of nutrients
excretion of toxic nitrogenous compounds (urea n ceatine), toxic wstes from bacterial actions n removal of various drugs taken into the body

39

which organ does filtration and reabsorption, cortex, n medullar of nephrons

kidneys

40

which organ transports urine

ureters

41

which organ excretes urine

urethra

42

which organ stores urine

bladder

43

blood enters kidneys thru _____ artery

renal

44

capillary network is selectively permeable bc of endothelium and cells called _____ with cytoplasmic extensions called _____ which line endothelium of capillaries and control flow of things out of blood supply

podocytes
pedicels

45

Functions of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT

- absorbs organic nutrients, ions and plasma protein from the filtrate
- water is absorbed from the PCT to the bloodstream
- the capillaries in the PCT region are called the peritubular capillaries

46

Functions of nephron loop

descending portion
- water leaves this portion and enter the bloodstream (thereby preventing dehydration)
- the capillaries surrounding the nephron loop are called the vasa recta
- ascending portion
- pumps ions (Na, Ca) out of the ascending loop thereby preventing the loss of these ions

47

Functions of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

active secretion of ions and acids
- selective reabsorption of NA ad Ca ions
- very little reabsorption of water

48

Functions of the collecting duct

the DCTs of several nephrons drain into the collecting duct
- the cells of the collecting ducts make final adjustments to the concentration of the urine that is
about to exit the kidneys

49

the urinary bladder lined with transitional epithelium, ______, a sprial muscle tht squeezes n compresses the bladder

detrusor

50

Micturition reflex and urination

- the first urge to urinate is when the bladder fills up to about 200ml
- greater than 200ml will cause the internal urethral sphincter to open
- the external urethral sphincter will open (voluntarily) to expel the stored urine
- between 500ml and 800ml, even the external urethral sphincter will open