Lecture 9 - Alimentary 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 - Alimentary 1 Deck (86):
1

What does the oral cavity consist of?

Vestibule and oral cavity proper

2

What does the vestibule consist of?

Space between lips/cheek and teeth/alveolar arches

3

What are the three divisions of the pharynx (be able to spell)

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

4

Where does the nasopharynx extend?

choana (posterior opening of nose) to soft palate

5

Where does the oropharynx extend?

soft palate to epliglottis

6

Where does the laryngopharynx extend?

epiglottis to the top of the trachea

7

What does the wall of the pharynx consist of (2)?

mucosa and three vertically overlapping constrictor muscles

8

How are the regions of the gut divided?

By basis of arterial supply

9

What does the foregut consist of (4)?

Oesophagus, stomach, duodenum to just below greater duodenal papilla and organs which develop in mesentaries of the foregut

10

Which organs developed in the mesentaries of the foregut (4)

Liver, pancreas, gall bladder and ducts, spleen

11

What does the midgut comprise of (7)

duodenum from just below the greater duodenal papilla, jujunem, ileum, caecum, appendix, ascending colon, right two thirds of transverse colon

12

What does the hindgut consist of (5)

left one third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and most of the anal canal

13

What four layers comprise the microstructure of the alimentary tract proper?

Mucosa, submucosa, external muscle, adventitia

14

What does the mucosa comprise of? (4)

Epithelium, glands, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa

15

What does the submucosa comprise of?

Connective tissue

16

What are the two types of muscle in the external muscle?

Inner circular and outer longitudinal

17

What is the adventitia connected to?

Either the surrounding fascia or the serosa (peritoneum)

18

Which direction is proximal vs distal?

Mouth vs anus

19

What is the oesophagus?

A muscular tube passing through the neck, thorax, and abdomen

20

What does the oesophagus connect?

The pharynx to the stomach

21

Trace the anatomical path of the oesophagus

C6 through superior and posterior mediastinum, through diaphragm about 2-3cm from midline at T10 (posterior to the central tendon of the diaphragm) and through the right crus to enter cardia of the stomach at T11

22

What is the relationship of the oesophagus to the aorta?

Lateral and anterior to the aorta

23

What is the oesophagus posterior to in relationship to the mediastinum ( 4)

Trachea, bronchi, pericardium and left atrium

24

What is the oesophagus anterior to in relationship to the mediastinum?

The vertebral column

25

What is the oesophagus medial to from T5-6 down?

thoracic duct, azygos and descending aorta

26

What is the lining epithelium made of in humans?

Non-keratinised stratified squamous

27

What is visible in prosections when the surrounding fascia of the mediastinum has been removed?

The outer longitudinal layer of external muscle

28

What gives the oeseophagus its characteristic appearance of longitudinal streaks?

The outer longitudinal layers of external muscle

29

What forms a plexus on the oesophagus?

The left and right vagus nerves

30

What does the plexus on the oesophagus go on to form?

Left and right vagal TRUNKS in the lower abdomen which pass through the diaphragm with the oesophagus

31

What is the posterior attachment of the abdominal oesophagus to the diaphragm

Gastrophrenic ligament

32

Where does the abdominal part of the oesophagus (1cm) run?

In a groove on the posterior surface of the liver to the cardia of the stomach

33

What is provides the contrast in the x-rays?

Barium swallow

34

Where are the four constrictions in the lumen?

1. Commencement - upper oeseophageal sphincter or the cricopharyngeus
2. Level of arch of the aorta
3. level of left main bronchus
4. Oesophageal hiatus - lower spincter

35

What does the lower oesophageal sphincter comprise of?

Specialised CIRCULAR muscle in the wall of oeseophagus at the level of the diaphragm and around the abdominal oesophagus

36

What maintains the tone of the lower oesophageal sphincter?

Myenteric plexus

37

When does the lower oesophageal sphincter relax?

During swallowing and vomiting

38

What does the muscle of the right crus form?

External sphincter of the oesophagus

39

What is the function of the external sphincter of the oesophagus?

Tightens during inspiration or when intraabdominal pressure is increased to prevent gastrooesophageal reflux

40

In early development, what is attached to the posterior body wall by the dorsal mesentery?

The entire abdominal part of the gut tube

41

In early development, what is attached to the anterior body wall by the ventral mesentery

The stomach and the foregut

42

Which organs/systems form in the ventral mesentery during early development (3)

The liver, biliary system and ventral pancreas

43

What does the ventral mesentery anterior to the liver form during early development

falciform ligament (supporting structure of the liver)

44

During early development what forms the lesser omentum

The part of the ventral mesentery which is between the liver anteriorly and the stomach posteriorly

45

What does the dorsal mesentery form during early development? (4)

Mesentery, mesoappendix, transverse mesocolon, sigmoid mesocolon

46

What organs form within the dorsal mesentery during early development (2)

Dorsal pancreas and spleen

47

What is fixation of the intestines?

Where regions destined to be retroperitoneal, the dorsal mesentery fuses with the posterior wall and is subsequently obliterated

48

The dorsal and ventral pancreas fuse during development true or false?

True

49

Why are the post natal positions of the organs very different to early development?

Due to complex rotation and rearrangement

50

What is the greater omentum?

A double fold of peritoneum

51

What is the greater omentum attached to

The greater curvature of the stomach and the first part of the duodenum

52

What is the greater omentum continuous with?

Gastrosplenic or gastrolienal ligament - The ligament that attaches the stomach to the spleen

53

What is the greater omentum also attached to?

The transverse mesocolon

54

The greater omentum adheres to the organs under normal circumstances true or false?

False

55

What does the greater omentum hang down to cover?

The anterior surface of most of the abdominal organs

56

Fully formed omentum has mesothelium on the posterior surface only, true or false?

False, it has mesothelium on both surfaces

57

What is the defining characteristic of fully formed greater omentum?

It is shiny (mesothelium) with fatty regions separated by translucent fat free regions, grainy appearance

58

How does the appearance of the greater omentum differ to the mesentery

Mesentery has a more even distribution of fat (but also has mesothelium on both posterior and anteriorsurfaces)

59

What can you also recognised in unembalmed greater omentum?

Macrophages which appear as whitish, opaque 'milk spots'

60

Give the development of the greater omentum in a fetus (4)

Initially a bag-like structure
Inner layers fuse
Then disappear to give a single structure
Transverse mesocolon becomes attached to posterior surface of the greater omentum

61

What is the function of the greater omentum (2)?

Protective via macrophages and other immune cells, also adheres to areas of peritoneal damage and inflammation

62

Where does the lesser omentum extend?

From the lesser curvature of the stomach and the first part of the duodenum to the posterior surface of the liver

63

What does the lesser omentum terminate as and on what side?

A free edge on the right

64

Where does the free edge extend?

From the duodenum to the posterior liver

65

What runs through the lesser omentum just to the left of the free edge? (5)

Hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct, lymph vessels and nerves

66

What is the lesser sac or omental bursa

The space posterior to the stomach and lesser omentum

67

What does the omental bursa allow for?

Movement and expansion of the stomach

68

What is the greater sac?

The rest of the peritoneal cavity that is not the omental bursa/lesser sac

69

What is the epiploic or omental foramen

The opening behind the free edge of the lesser omentum

70

What connects the greater and lesser sacs?

The omental or epiploic foramen

71

What is at the posterior wall of the omental bursa?

The stomach bed

72

What does the stomach bed include (5)

Upper pole of left kidney and left suprarenal, diaphragm, part of spleen, pancreas, part of transverse mesocolon

73

Stomach bed includes retroperitoneal structures true or false?

True

74

The stomach is highly distensable true or false,?

True

75

What is the function of the stomach (2)

Food storage and digestion

76

What doe the stomach consist of (4)

Cardia, fundus, body and pyloric part

77

What does the pyloric part of the stomach consist of (3)?

Antrum, canal and sphincter

78

What are some other non-main features of the stomach (4)

Cardiac notch, angular incisure, lesser curvature and greater curvature

79

The cardia and fundus are fairly mobile, true or false?

False

80

What are the temporary, internal longitudinal folds of the stomach called?

Rugae

81

What are the anterior relationships of the stomach? (2)

Liver, diaphragm

82

What are the posterior relationships of the stomach (2)?

Omental bursa and the structures of the stomach bed

83

Where is the cardiac orifice of the stomach anatomically?

The 7th costal cartilage which attaches at the xiphosternal joint and is 3cm left of the midline

84

Where is the pyloric sphincter surface anatomy wise

Roughly at the level of the transpyloric plane (halfway between the suprasternal notch and pubic symphysis)

85

What is the function of stomach mucosa?

To produce mucus in the cardia and pyloric part

86

Which parts of the stomach (2) produce digestive enzymes and HCl

fundus and body