Lecture 9: Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9: Cardiovascular System Deck (22):
1

What are the three components of the circulatory systems?

Circulatory fluid (blood), Tubes (blood vessels) and a Pump (heart)

2

Name a few characteristics of a closed circulatory system

Higher blood pressure, more efficient and can meet the metabolic demands of larger more active animals

3

Name the four chambers of the heart

Two atrium and two ventricles

4

Name the four chambers of the heart

Two atria and two ventricles

5

What do the atria and ventricles do?

The atria receive the blood and the ventricles pump the blood

6

Name the three blood vessels

Arteries, veins and capillaries

7

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart to the capillary beds (except for the umbilical artery)

8

Veins

Carry blood to the heart

9

What do the arteries allow in terms of substances?

They allow the substances to be exchanged by diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid

10

What kind of muscle is the heart mainly made up of?

Cardiac muscle

11

Why does the left ventricle have a thicker wall than the right ventricle?

Because it has to pump blood to the rest of the body, not just the lungs like the right ventricle

12

Describe the cardiac cycle

It is a cycle of systole and distole (contraction and relaxation)

13

What does cardiac output depend on? Give the equation

The rate of contraction: Beats per minute and the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each contraction Q=HR×SV

14

Name the two valves of the heart and their job

Atrioventricular (right) and Semi-lunar (left) valves. They prevent backflow of blood

15

Describe the beating process of the heart

Pacemaker generates wave of signals to contract, signals are delayed, then pass to heart ape, then spread throughout ventricles

16

Describe characteristics of arteries and veins

Outer layer: connective tissue w/ elastic fibres, middle layer: smooth muscle and fibres, inner layer: endothelium and flattened cells

17

Describe the characteristics of capillaries

Thin walls of endothelium and basment membranes

18

What is the difference between the thickness of the walls in regards to arteries and veins?

Arteries have thicker and more muscular walls than veins

19

Systolic pressure

Blood pressure being the highest when the heart contracts

20

Peripheral resistance

Flow of blood through arterioles is hindered by the narrowness of the arterioles

21

Describe the distribution of blood in the capillary beds

Diameter of arterioles that supply the capillary beds. Precapillary sphincters control blood flow.

22

Describe the lymphatic circulation

Lymphatic capillaries > Collecting ducts > Lymphatic trunks