Lecture 9: Culture and Multiracial Families Flashcards Preview

🚫 PSY311H1F: Social Development with H. Kil > Lecture 9: Culture and Multiracial Families > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 9: Culture and Multiracial Families Deck (21):

How do we classify different cultures? [6]

  • Collectivistic vs. Individualistic (Triandis)
    • On the basis of group values, goals, duties
  • Interdependent vs. Independent (Markus & Kitayama)
    • On the basis of self-construals, identity (more recent categorization)
  • Somewhat interchangeable
  • What aspects might these groups differ on (e.g. parenting)?


intercultural strategies model [6]

  • Developed by John Berry, famous acculturation researcher
  • Different strategies for how people moving into a culture + receiving culture will interact with each other depending on the orientation they hold
  • Parent-child mismatch + discord in integration strategies
    • Usually b/c children adapt better + have more peers in the host culture
    • Parents usually have the other three (not integration)

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bicultural frame switching [5]

  • How one should switch between two lenses/cultural meaning systems competently
  • cultural meaning systems: a framework for interpreting and directing affect, cognition, and behavior
  • cultural frame-switching: moving between different cultural meaning systems in response to situational cues
  • Is frame-switching always good?
    • It’s like multitasking; using two frames simultaneously means you might not be doing well in either


3 aspects to bicultural identity [3]

  1. Can integrate both cultures in everyday life
  2. Can follow norms of behaviour in both cultures
  3. Can switch behavior depending on the cultural demands of a situation


Benet-Martinez et al. (2002) [6]

(hint: bicultural identity integration)

  • Chinese-American Ps given American vs. Chinese prime
  • Completed bicultural identity questionnaire; 8-point Likert Scale
  • Rated why one fish was swimming apart from others
  • 9-point Likert scale: 1=because fish is influenced by group (e.g. being pressured, teased, or chased by others); 9=because fish is influenced by internal traits (e.g. personal objective or leadership)
  • Moderation effect of cultural priming on attributions of fish behaviour
  • Low BII → complete rejection of both cultures, opposite results of primed culture

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parent-child acculturation discrepancy [4]

  • Mismatch between child + parent integration strategies → potentially leads to:
  • Family conflict
  • Unsupportive parenting
  • Prior two can sometimes → negative child outcomes


Kim et al. (2013) [6]

(hint: acculturation discrepancy)

  • Acculturation discrepancy + adolescent outcomes
  • Chinese-American Ps (parents + adolescents) at two time points (HS)
  • Measured acculturation discrepancy (Ps + As); sense of alienation (Ps + As); supportive parenting (warmth, reasoning, monitoring); adolescent adjustment (academic, emotional)
  • Only American orientation discrepancy had an impact; no discrepancy was found in Chinese cultural maintenance
  • Fathers: depression + lower GPA; mothers: only GPA
    • Fathers + mothers talk differently to their children, + maybe differences in value of patriarch for Chinese families


positive outcomes of acculturation [3]

  • One possibility: greater responsibility and resilience
  • e.g. Through language brokering → being a spokesperson for your family that doesn’t speak the host language very well
  • Also having gone through acculturative stress


issues with "cross" cultural [6]

  • Greater difference within countries than between them!
  • Patricia Greenfield (JCCP, 2014): claims that these within country differences are due to globalization and expansion of (global) commerce
  • Media effects as well: internet and facile exposure to other cultures and incorporation of other value systems
  • Within a country: both individualist and collectivist systems exist?
    • Isolated, rural, poor, subsistence based, home-educated, simple technology → more collectivist based
    • Connected to world, urban, rich, commerce-based, heterogenous → more individualist based


parental concerns in multiracial families [8]

  • Discussion of racial identity
    • Limited knowledge of multiracial identity and related issues
  • Ambivalence in acknowledgement; don’t know if they want to address the multiracial identity of their children (when children are younger)
  • Experiences of racism due to being in mixed-race relationships
    • How do you address this if it happens when you’re with your child?
  • Physical appearance; stress of not looking like either of your parents (am I adopted?)
  • Pros and cons to integration of ethnicity (and sometimes, culture)
  • Curiosity (and worry); often as a result of all prior factors


navigating multiracial parenting [8]

  • Multiracial children from 2 monoracial parents → higher risk of mental, physical, and behavior problems
    • Usually b/c of society’s inability the role of being multiracial, identity of being multiracial, + challenges faced as a result
    • Everyone will want to categorize you as one or the other; difficulties trying to identify as both
  • Each parent’s perspective, disagreements; don’t understand unique MR/ME experience
    • e.g. double rejection/dual discrimination; not accepted by either race completely
  • Parents must modify parenting style and response → flexibility + sensitivity
    • Show warmth + support even if you don’t understand what’s happening
    • Perceive the issues and properly respond


Crippen & Brew: intercultural parenting strategies [8]

  • Mixed-culture couples; identified 2 areas of concern in adapting to differences between cultures
  • 1. How are differences perceived?
    • Minimized, (Differentiated, Transcended,) Emphasized
    • i.e. Differences don’t matter vs. these differences are a huge problem
  • 2. Can there be mutual agreement of differences in order to reach a solution??
    • Low (no), asymmetrical (mother or father accommodates), convergent (third culture/space), high (yes)
    • i.e. low disagreement on how minority culture status is addressed vs. trying to accommodate

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assimilate [1]

(intercultural parenting strategies)

  • Unilateral accommodation (usually on part of minority parent)


cultural tourism [2]

(intercultural parenting strategies)

  • Lower investment in teaching of cultural values (especially from minority culture)
  • Superficially celebrate certain holidays; usually if minority is dad


cultural transition [2]

(intercultural parenting strategies)

  • Explicitly teaching the child values from the minority culture
  • Usually if minority is mom


cultural amalgamation [2]

(intercultural parenting strategies)

  • Blending of values for a higher goal
  • Wiewing different cultures as both significant + complementary


dual biculturalism [2]

(intercultural parenting strategies)

  • Both parents trying to acculturate to one another; simultaneously modelling to their child how to acculturate
  • Accepting one another’s cultural values while still maintaining own culture


Bowie et al. [8]

(hint: MR outcomes)

  • Study of African American, Caucasian American, + multiracial kids
  • Connection between emotional dysregulation of parents in T1 + emotional outcomes for children in T2?
  • Sadness dysregulation for mother’s correlated to child depression in AA + Caucasian children, + depression in AAs
  • Mother anger dysregulation related to child anxiety + depression for AA and Caucasian children
  • Father anger dysregulation related to anxiety + depression for multiracial kids
  • Emotional dysregulation for parents impact children’s emotional regulation @ T2
  • Father’s lack of anger regulation impacts multiracial children’s adjustment
    • Only mother’s dysregulation affects monoracial children


Bowie et al. (2013)

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Shih & Sanchez (2006) [7]

(hint: review of MR studies)

  • Review of +/- outcomes for multiracial kids
  • 1/5 studies: more MR/ME kids had depressive symptoms
  • 7/12 studies: no self-esteem difference for MR/ME and mono
  • 2 indicate higher self-esteem for MR/ME!
  • 2/7 studies: no academic success difference between MR/ME and mono
  • Only 2/7 studies indicate lower scores for MR/ME
  • But 8/10 studies: more MR/ME problem behaviours


positive role of parents [3]

  • Supportive, model proper interpretation of + coping responses to social difficulties → better developmental outcomes
    • Not different from monoracial families; all kids need the same warmth + support
  • But, MR/ME families: unique, more complexity